Sunday, 29 April 2012

=technology to what end??=

Where would you like to go1,2


Hii everybody. Good wishes to you all!
  • This is our topic ‘Technology recreation of new generation!’
 We’d like to contribute our gratitude to those who have made our life better through thousands of years. Today we are living in a much better society than that during fourteenth century. Because our society is getting a new level through the time. What does new level means? With new level I mean that the society we are living is never the same. Many great and innovative ideas are added to it which recharges it like glucose recharges us. It is true that a person can’t stop thinking about the surroundings. Whether it is about people, nature or machines! Slowly this thinking often raises my question in the person’s mind. How? What? Who? When? Some take it as theory and some does it practically by bringing his answers of the questions to the machines. The one who does it practically is remembered for ever. These machines are given a better touch by different thinker (now known as scientists).
Though technology means ‘scientific study of craft’ but we can also say it ‘ideas that makes a change in the society or recreate it’! Time and technology are two main factors which can make substance into resources. We can say that the word technology is nothing without us .and technology is a human made resource.
These technologies have affected society and its surroundings in a number of ways. In many societies, technology has helped develop more advanced economies (including today's Global economy) and has allowed the rise of a leisure class. Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products, known as pollution, and deplete natural resources, to the detriment of the Earth and its environment. Various implementations of technology influence the values of a society and new technology often raises new ethical questions. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, a term originally applied only to machines, and the challenge of traditional norms.
We gave our best in doing this project. We are sure that it will be helpful to you and you will visit when needed. The people behind this project are infinite directly or indirectly. The team will be always thankful to thus who helped us and supported us in school and house.

Our project will give you complete knowledge about technology, its history, its journey till now, developments, uses and its impact on us and environment. 

 “Modern technology
 Owes ecology
 An apology.”
 Technology is the making, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts,system or methods of organization in order to solve a problem or perform a specific function. It can also refer to the collection of such tools, machinery, and procedures. Technologies significantly affect human as well as other animal species' ability to control and adapt to their natural environments. The word technology comes from Greek  technología ; from  téchnē , meaning "art, skill, craft", and  -logia , meaning "study of-". The term can either be applied generally or to specific areas: examples include construction technology, medical technology, and information technology.
The human species' use of technology began with the conversion of natural resources into simple tools. The prehistorical discovery of the ability to control fire increased the available sources of food and the invention of the wheel helped humans in travelling in and controlling their environment. Recent technological developments, including the printing press, the telephone, and the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communications and allowed humans to interact freely on a global scale. However, not all technology has been used for peaceful purposes; the development of weapons of ever-increasing destructive power has progressed throughout history, from clubs to nuclear   weapon. 
It  is the process by which humans modify nature to meet their needs and wants. Most people, however, think of technology in terms of its artifacts: computers and software, aircraft, pesticides, water-treatment plants, birth-control pills, and microwave ovens, to name a few. But technology is more than these tangible products.
The meaning of the word "technology" evolved to reflect these changes. In the nineteenth century, technology referred simply to the practical arts used to create physical products, everything from wagon wheels and cotton cloth to telephones and steam engines. In the twentieth century, the meaning of the word was expanded to include everything involved in satisfying human material needs and wants, from factories and the organizations that operate them to scientific knowledge, engineering know-how, and technological products themselves.

“Do you realize if it weren't for Edison we'd be watching TV by candlelight?”

Think for a moment what it might be like to live in the 14th century. Image that you could travel back in time and found yourself in a small Indian village in 1392.
   What do you think you would find?
·     How would you cook your food?
·      Would you use an oven, a fire, or a microwave?
·     How would you eat your food?
·   Do you think you could use a plastic cup to drink your milk?
·    How would you go from one city to the next?
·    Could you get on a train or would you have to walk or ride a horse? How would you send a message to your mom telling her you’ll be late for dinner?
·    Can you email her or call her on your cell phone?
·     How would you get your clothes?
·    Can you shop at a 14th century mall, or on the internet? And what would your clothes be made of?
Think for a moment how different everything would be if you were to live in the 14th century.
“Technological progress has merely provided us with more efficient means for going backwards”.
Many of the items you use today are a result of technology. Your cell phone, microwave oven, washing machine, and plastic cup are all the result of scientific discoveries combined with engineering that have allow people to invent products that have improved the way people live. Technological advances have improved our health, the food we eat, the clothes we wear, how we travel, and how we communicate with one another. There are a few drawbacks to some aspects of technology (such as pollution) but overall technology has greatly improved many aspects of living for most people.
Throughout the twentieth century the uses of the term have increased to the point where it now encompasses a number of “classes” of technology:
 1. Technology as Objects:
 Tools, machines, instruments, weapons, appliances - the physical devices of technical performance
 2. Technology as Knowledge:
 The know-how behind technological innovation
 3. Technology as Activities:
 What people do - their skills, methods, procedures, routines
 4. Technology as a Process:
 Begins with a need and ends with a solution
 5. Technology as a Social technical System:
 The manufacture and use of objects involving people and other objects in combination.


What did you do today?
Did you talk on the telephone?
Did you ride in a car or on a bus?
Did you use a computer or turn on a light?
If you did any of these things, you used technology.

Almost everybody uses some form of technology at work, home, or school. Computer programmers use computer technology to write a computer program. People may write letters using a computer program called a word processor. Many people work in the entertainment industry. Camera operators use television and motion-picture cameras. They use them to make TV shows and movies. Disc jockeys, or DJs, play records and CDs on the radio.

Scientists use all sorts of technology to study the Earth and the Universe. Businesses often have telephones, fax machines, and computers. Graphic designers use desktop publishing programs to create books and magazines. Doctors frequently use medical technology. They use it to treat injuries, illnesses, and diseases such as cancer. Pilots fly airplanes and helicopters. Who knows what jobs will be created by new technologies in the future!

Plastic toothbrushes or teddy bear fur - almost everything we touch came from a special invention and needs tools for manufacture. This section displays over 400 everyday articles manufactured between 1750 and today. Technology is woven through our daily lives at home, at work or at play.

Perhaps the leading example is the automobile. This vehicle was already in existence at the beginning of the twentieth century, but it was not a common sight on the roads of the nation until the 1920s, when car ownership rates skyrocketed. It was during this decade that Henry Ford (1863–1947) and other automobile manufacturers made cars that almost anybody could afford to buy. In 1919 there had been 6.9 million passenger cars in the United States, but by 1929 there were 23 million.

Montegiro Turntable

It's ironic that some of the most beautiful turntables have shown up long after the days of vinyl? If only we had had such beauty back in the days of records. Germany based company, Montegiro, has a new high-end audio system in the form of the new Legno turntable, and it not a usual one.

These gadget uses bamboo as well as high-grade steel to produce beautiful music from your old vinyl collection. The company decided to use a bamboo chassis because of the wood’s stabilizing and resonance-damping properties. There are also four adjustable and high-grade steel feet with rubber O-rings.

Eee PC in A Car Mod

Well it’s been awhile since we've seen a good car modification. The last one was the X-Box 360 Car Mod. Now, thanks to a Risky hacker, an Eee PC gets crammed into a automobile dashboard!

He is posting an article showing how to take a 7 inch Eee PC apart and turn it into a car computer that hooks into an auto stereo system and it even acts as a graphic equalizer.

The resulted product is a computer in your car with 1GB of RAM, 4GB of built in storage plus an 8GB SDHC card, a 7 inch, 800 x 480 pixel display, Bluetooth, a slot-loading DVD-RW drive, GPS, 5.1 channel audio, a touschreen, and a boatload of USB adapters that string the whole thing together.We can almost hear you guys getting your tools out to make it too... :)

Get Smart With Smart-Leaf PC

We know that space is always an issue with PC's so Originatic is aiming to put them on your wall. Scheduled for the CES ’09 debut is the all-in-one wall-mounted Smart-Leaf PC, designed with space-saving in mind. If you’re a casual PC user, it’s worth a look for this gadget.

In Las Vegas, Originatic will showcase two of these PCs, the Smart-Leaf Oasis and the Smart-Leaf Mountain.

The former features a touchscreen, fold-out keyboard, trackpad, TV tuner and Wi-Fi, and is perfect for the home, the latter features all keyboard lock and a trackball in addition to the other’s features, but lacks the TV tuner.

iPod and Ihome Rock Out!

Well it's look likes Ihome has done it again with their latest iPod dock and speakers in the market nowadays. This time the dock is built into an accent lamp.This new luminescent design features 6W total speaker output, is compatible with iPod and all other auxiliary audio sources that's you have.

This iLamp comes in a variety of colors. It’s a great way to have your gadgets blend in with the design of your home, while your dock is a bit more functional.

Apparently these lamps make pretty music notes swirl around it like a mini huh?

Digital Wrist Camera

We know sometimes technology and nature aren't exactly best friends. Whatever the cause, the elements of nature decided that expensive electronics and outdoor watersports are a lethal combination often ending in disaster. This works out fine for those basement dwelling obsessive geeks who keep all electronics in hermetically sealed vaults lest they get a slight scratch... but what about the outdoor geek who might want to capture the action digitally while snorkeling, snowboarding or mountain biking.

Well.. Luckily the Hero 3 Digital Wrist Camera has decided to "make nice" with the great outdoors by sporting a durable exoskeleton that pretty much goes anywhere. Strap the Hero 3 to your wrist and snap some sweet shots while, climbing, skiing, biking, or diving up to 100 feet. This mini camera locks flat to your wrist for storage then pivots up to capture crisp digital photos or 30 fps movies.

Garmin's G5

Garmin is in the expanding its line of outdoor recreation GPS devices, feels now is the time to unveil a GPS unit for those among us who golf. It is called the Approach G5 and there is not yet any pricing information available in it.

This Garmin Approach G5 sports have a three-inch touchscreen display and is designed specifically for the golf course. It is said to show golfers the precise distance to the center of green or other key course features, helping to improve a golfer’s score.

The features of the Approach G5 include detailed course maps with precise distance information from their current location to fairways, hazards and greens, a weight of 6.8 ounces, AA battery powered and a touchscreen digital scorecard for operating this thing.

The Xtensor Make You Quick

You've got the greatest gaming rig out there. You've spent a lot of money on it - now it's a monolithic liquid-nitrogen-cooled monstrosity capable of pumping out smoother 3D video than real-life. After all that you also have a mouse with it's sensitivity to a billion dpi, and your keyboard has a customized throw-distance tuned exactly to your finger length. After all this effort, you still get lose. How come?

OK, Your rig may be awesome, and your brain may be sharp and quick, but if your body doesn't respond to your brain's commands correctly, you may as well be playing with mittens on. You need physical conditioning...

This gadget called The Xtensor is the only product on the market to perform with true biomechanical correctness, able to stimulate muscles and tendons in the hands, wrists and elbows that have been virtually off limits to all other devices. Repetitive gripping and squeezing of your game-controller or mouse forces extended isometric contractions of the flexor muscles of the hands and fingers producing an unnatural imbalance over time as the hands operate in a mostly closed position. For this reason, patients with hand, wrist and elbow disorders experience unnecessarily long healing times and high reoccurrence rates. Cool right?

With this thing, your hands move reaction-times much quicker, and will mean no cramping hands after all-night fragging sessions.

Ski With The Ski Home Simulator

When using Wii-Fit’s balance board is great for some sports simulations, but it can only go so far. The Ski Home Simulator is another gadget that will give you an option for those with large bank accounts and too much time on their hands at least $2285. It's also has features for the ski beginner, as well as more advanced users, like a pro maybe? :)

But apparently it’s for the PC only for now, meaning that you need to plug it to your PC or your laptop.

This gadget comes with 32 different courses in it, from 18 real life venues including Beaver Lake, Lake Louise and Chamonix, these are still pretty expensive courses when you take the price into your bank account

Precision Spoon Scale

If you're a real cooker, you know that volumetric measurement is very important. Let's say you're making biscuits. The recipe says 1 cup of flour, but are we talking 200 grams or 270 grams? Depending on humidity, or how much your flour was compacted when you scooped it, that could make a difference, right? Measuring your wet ingredients and your dry ingredients with our new ultra-precise spoon scale.And with two spoons included, you can scoop out just the right amount of sugar, or even 10-1 grams of salt! To get this level of precision, you'd normally need a separate scale, but now, there's a gadget that combined two immensely useful kitchen gadgets into one, and we love dual-use devices in the kitchen!

These graduated scales on the sides of this gadget will help you measure out your volumetric measurements, or you can use the LCD display built into the handle to measure the weight. It can weigh as little as one one-tenth of a gram all the way to 300 grams. So, cooking is easier now!

Technology is an absolute need we cannot escape from. It has a very big role in most aspects of our lives. In other words, it has become our part of our lives. Now more advancement are made in technology so as to make yours lives more comfortable, more fast and to and to compete to this fast running world.



Better technology can helps us study and better understand how we are affecting the environment.

Technology makes it possible for many people with disabilities to succeed in employment and function in today’s society. There are numerous technologies that help people use computers. Key­boards that have large lettering and bright keys help the visually impaired. A keyless keyboard allows users to type by sliding domes around to create letters and numbers. A headband and armband device lets a computer user control the cursor with motion and eye blinks to activate button clicks. Persons with physical limitations could “point and click” without lifting a finger from the computer keyboard. A handheld device that uses GPS technology helps a person with cognitive disabilities catch a bus. It sends a prompt to get ready when the bus is approaching and another when the bus is at the stop.

Technology has been used to promote greater economic equity, more freedom of choice, changes in the pattern of work, but in some cases it has caused the elimination of entire classifications of employment.


Advancements in things that require fossil fuels reduces the amount we have, and if burned, emits carbon dioxide into the air.

Advancements in other exploitation techniques can also get rid of things such as forests, aquifers, and other natural resources that we need.

Technologies such as the invention of vehicles, air-conditioning and other advanced gadgets have caused air pollution. Carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases are released into the air, causing global warming. Industrialization have also contributed to much of these.For example, in the USA the industrial revolution produced great wealth for some and modest improvements for many but a great deal of air pollution for everybody. The air in cities was so full of smoke that smogs (fog and smoke mixed) were frequent and thousands died each year from respiratory illnesses. It was technology in the form of smokeless fuels that solved the problem but it was technology (steam and internal combustion engines) that caused it in the first place.

Technology and the industrialization of farming have enabled food production to be increased but this has led to vast human population growth which is overwhelming the natural world and will lead to a catastrophe unless we chose to control population growth.

In rich countries industrialization and technology has enabled us to plunder natural resources such as coal, oil and gas at an accelerating rate. This has enabled us to satisfy greedy instincts but the environmental damage being done is enormous. Landfill sites and litter are evidence of this wastefulness and carelessness. Future generations will ask - what caused us to make such a mess and where has all the fossil fuel gone?

But it does not have to be this way. Technology can be used to increase productivity so that we can enjoy more leisure time for socialising, sport and art of all types. It is the greedy pursuit of wealth to be spent on stuff we do not need that adds stress to life and damages the environment.Traced back to the advent of fire, mankind has constantly played with the boundaries of making his life better while degrading the environment.

Some common everyday forms of industrial pollution are as follows: 1.Chemical 2.Atomic 3.Noise 4.Light . While each has different grades of degradation,those with long half life's are considered by some to be more detrimental to the environment and living organisms including mankind.Other forms of pollution also exist but are not industrial in nature.

Technology has its benefits, but when you take a look at how it has affected society in general and how people interact with one another, you will quickly see that it has a negative impact. Modern technology has allowed people to communicate with just about anyone they want to at any given time and although this may sound like a good thing, the fact remains that people do not interact personally with one another as often as they used to. This has created a barrier in personable, face-to-face communication amongst people because they no longer have to hold a meeting in an office or they no longer have to call up a friend or family member to wish them a happy birthday or congratulate them on their recent success.

As a result, people are becoming more lazy, and they don't feel the dire need to step outside of their home to find entertainment and fun in things that used to be fun, such as participating in a rousing game of basketball with friends, meeting a friend at a coffee shop, etc. Technology is a privilege to have but interaction with other people is crucial, and being responsible for one's actions and not letting technology rule his or her life is better than becoming desensitized to society.


In just a physical sense, there is the possibility of a lot more, and a lot less being done. You take cameras. It used to take four men to operate a camera. Now, with high definition, one man. That means 75 percent of the workforce is looking for a job. The medium has changed. The type of entertainments people seek have changed.

Digital downloads also create copyright problems. Since anyone can get his hands on digital music, it's hard for the music business to police how the public uses its product. If a DJ wants to create his own mash-up and then post it on online, there's really no one to stop him. That's exactly what DJ Danger Mouse did in 2004 when he combined the Beatles' "White Album" with JAY-Z's "Black Album." The illegal mash-up went viral and garnered a lot of publicity. While JAY-Z's record company didn't seem to mind, EMI, the owner of the Beatles' catalogue, sure did. It sent Danger Mouse a cease-and-desist letter, but it didn't matter. Danger Mouse gained fame and went on to high-paying projects. His "Grey Album" is still available.

While digital technology has clearly had a negative impact on musicians, it's had positive side effects too. Not only is it cheaper to make music, but it's easier to find fans through social media tools. Technology has also made it possible for bands to diversify. In addition to music, bands now sell ring tones, a major moneymaker, and other products online. Metallica even offers fans the chance to download live concert recordings from every stop on a tour -- what mega-fan wouldn't want the recording from a concert he saw? The early 2000s may have been bleak the music industry, but the possibilities of digital technology promise big bucks for smart entrepreneurs.

New technology has generated a huge expansion in entertainment options. Just as the advent of cable brought an explosion in the number of TV channels and programs, videogame systems such as Nintendo’s Wii and Microsoft’s X-Box have created a boon in at-home gaming. With the growing popularity of smartphone applications, games can now be played almost anywhere.

The changes in technology have made it inexpensive enough to create novels in this novel way. That has been a huge change. I think the Internet is going to continue to change what the actor's role is. That's why, for me, it's always important to know not just what project you're working on, but what story you're telling. Because that is going to guide your path.

The importance of stone tools, circa 2.5 million years ago, is considered fundamental in human development in the hunting hypothesis.

It has been suggested, in Catching Fire: How Cooking Made Us Human, that the control of fire by early humans and the associated development of cooking was the spark that radically changed human evolution.

All these little changes in mobile phones, like Internet access, are further examples of the cycle of co-production. Society's need for being able to call on people and be available everywhere resulted in the research and development of mobile phones. They in turn influenced the way we live our lives. As the populace relies more and more on mobile phones, additional features were requested. This is also true with today's modern media player.

Society also influenced changes to previous generation media players. In the first personal music players, cassettes stored music. However, that method seemed fragile and relatively low fidelity when compact disks came along. Later, availability of MP3 and other compact file formats made compact disks seem too large and limited, so manufactures created MP3 players which are small and hold large amount of data. Societal preferences helped determined the course of events through predictable preferences. Technology can be credited with ushering in a golden age of choices for movie and music lovers. But for companies in the entertainment business, only those who think creatively about how to sell and deliver content -- such as Apple and Netflix -- will reap the benefits.

Economics and technological development 

In ancient history, economics began when occasional, spontaneous exchange of goods and services was replaced over time by deliberate trade structures. Makers of arrowheads, for example, might have realized they could do better by concentrating on making arrowheads and barter for other needs. Clearly, regardless of goods and services bartered, some amount of technology was involved—if no more than in the making of shell and bead jewelry. Even the shaman's potions and sacred objects can be said to have involved some technology. So, from the very beginnings, technology can be said to have spurred the development of more elaborate economies.

In the modern world, superior technologies, resources, geography, and history give rise to robust economies; and in a well-functioning, robust economy, economic excess naturally flows into greater use of technology. Moreover, because technology is such an inseparable part of human society, especially in its economic aspects, funding sources for (new) technological endeavors are virtually illimitable. However, while in the beginning, technological investment involved little more than the time, efforts, and skills of one or a few men, today, such investment may involve the collective labor and skills of many millions.

Technology and Economics in the Future

Some analysts such as Martin Ford, author of The Lights in the Tunnel: Automation, Accelerating Technology and the Economy of the Future, argue that as information technology advances, robots and other forms of automation will ultimately result in significant unemployment as machines and software begin to match and exceed the capability of workers to perform most routine jobs.

As robotics and artificial intelligence develop further, even many skilled jobs may be threatened. Technologies such as machine learning may ultimately allow computers to do many knowledge-based jobs that require significant education. This may result in substantial unemployment at all skill levels, stagnant or falling wages for most workers, and increased concentration of income and wealth as the owners of capital capture an ever larger fraction of the economy. This in turn could lead to depressed consumer spending and economic growth as the bulk of the population lacks sufficient discretionary income to purchase the products and services produced by the economy.

Sociological factors and effects


· The implementation of technology influences the values of a society by changing expectations and realities. The implementation of technology is also influenced by values. There are (at least) three major, interrelated values that inform, and are informed by, technological innovations:

· Mechanistic world view: Viewing the universe as a collection of parts, (like a machine), that can be individually analyzed and understood. This is a form of reductionism that is rare nowadays. However, the "neo-mechanistic world view" holds that nothing in the universe cannot be understood by the human intellect. Also, while all things are greater than the sum of their parts (e.g., even if we consider nothing more than the information involved in their combination), in principle, even this excess must eventually be understood by human intelligence. That is, no divine or vital principle or essence is involved.

· Efficiency: A value, originally applied only to machines, but now applied to all aspects of society, so that each element is expected to attain a higher and higher percentage of its maximal possible performance, output, or ability.

· Social progress: The belief that there is such a thing as social progress, and that, in the main, it is beneficent. Before the Industrial Revolution, and the subsequent explosion of technology, almost all societies believed in a cyclical theory of social movement and, indeed, of all history and the universe. This was, obviously, based on the cyclicity of the seasons, and an agricultural economy's and society's strong ties to that cyclicity. Since much of the world is closer to their agricultural roots, they are still much more amenable to cyclicity than progress in history. This may be seen, for example, in Prabhatrainjansarkar's modern social cycles theory. For a more westernized version of social cyclicity, see Generations: The History of America's Future, 1584 to 2069 (Paperback) by Neil Howe and William Strauss; Harper Perennial; Reprint edition (September 30, 1992) and subsequent books by these authors.

Institutions and groups

Technology often enables organizational and bureaucratic group structures that otherwise and heretofore were simply not possible. Examples of this might include:

· The rise of very large organizations: e.g., governments, the military, health and social welfare institutions, supranational corporations.

· The commercialization of leisure: sports events, products, etc. (McGinn)

· The almost instantaneous dispersal of information (especially news) and entertainment around the world.


Technology enables greater knowledge of international issues, values, and cultures. Due mostly to mass transportation and mass media, the world seems to be a much smaller place, due to the following, among others:

· Globalization of ideas

· Embeddedness of values


Technology provides an understanding, and an appreciation for the world around us.

Most modern technological processes produce unwanted byproducts in addition to the desired products, which is known as industrial waste and pollution. While most material waste is re-used in the industrial process, many forms are released into the environment, with negative environmental side effects, such as pollution and lack of sustainability. Different social and political systems establish different balances between the value they place on additional goods versus the disvalues of waste products and pollution. Some technologies are designed specifically with the environment in mind, but most are designed first for economic or ergonomic effects. Historically, the value of a clean environment and more efficient productive processes has been the result of an increase in the wealth of society, because once people are able to provide for their basic needs, they are able to focus on less-tangible goods such as clean air and water.

The effects of technology on the environment are both obvious and subtle. The more obvious effects include the depletion of nonrenewable natural resources (such as petroleum, coal, ores), and the added pollution of air, water, and land. The more subtle effects include debates over long-term effects (e.g., global warming, deforestation, natural habitat destruction, coastal wetland loss.)

Each wave of technology creates a set of waste previously unknown by humans: toxic waste, radioactive waste, electronic waste.

One of the main problems is the lack of an effective way to remove these pollutants on a large scale expediently. In nature, organisms "recycle" the wastes of other organisms, for example, plants produce oxygen as a by-product of photosynthesis, oxygen-breathing organisms use oxygen to metabolize food, producing carbon dioxide as a by-product, which plants use in a process to make sugar, with oxygen as a waste in the first place. No such mechanism exists for the removal of technological wastes.

Humanity at the moment may be compared to a colony of bacteria in a Petri dish with a constant food supply: with no way to remove the wastes of their metabolism, the bacteria eventually poison themselves.

Autonomous technology

In one line of thought, technology develops autonomously, in other words, technology seems to feed on itself, moving forward with a force irresistible by humans. To these individuals, technology is "inherently dynamic and self-augmenting."

Jacques Ellul is one proponent of the irresistibleness of technology to humans. He espouses the idea that humanity cannot resist the temptation of expanding our knowledge and our technological abilities. However, he does not believe that this seeming autonomy of technology is inherent. But the perceived autonomy is because humans do not adequately consider the responsibility that is inherent in technological processes.

Another proponent of these ideas is Langdon Winner who believes that technological evolution is essentially beyond the control of individuals or society.

Individuals rely on governmental assistance to control the side effects and negative consequences of technology.

Supposed independence of government. An assumption commonly made about the government is that their governance role is neutral or independent. However some argue that governing is a political process, so government will be influenced by political winds of influence. In addition, because government provides much of the funding for technological research and development, it has a vested interest in certain outcomes. Other point out that the world's biggest ecological disasters, such as the Aral Sea, Chernobyl, and Lake Karachay have been caused by government projects, which are not accountable to consumers.

Liability. One means for controlling technology is to place responsibility for the harm with the agent causing the harm. Government can allow more or less legal liability to fall to the organizations or individuals responsible for damages.

Legislation. A source of controversy is the role of industry versus that of government in maintaining a clean environment. While it is generally agreed that industry needs to be held responsible when pollution harms other people, there is disagreement over whether this should be prevented by legislation or civil courts, and whether ecological systems as such should be protected from harm by governments.

Recently, the social shaping of technology has had new influence in the fields of e-science and e-social science in the United Kingdom, which has made centers focusing on the social shaping of science and technology a central part of their funding programs.


Our world is ever changing an advancing in the realm of science and technology. Our dreams become cornerstones for the future. These days it seems hard to escape the presence of technology. Many of us depend on it to get us through the day, to do our job, to get around, and to find certain things. While technology has brought us such a long way, could it in fact be hindering us in other ways? What happens when these same technologies we so depend on fail? Could most forms of techology just be interruptions, ways of moving us further away from each other? Could Technology cause a form of isolation? We are faced with these questions every day, whether we realize it or not.


“Technology makes it possible for people to gain control over everything, except over technology”

This page will show you how with technology minds of people changed.

A day was when it required ten days to travel across the state but slowly invention of the means of transport took place. From that day this ten days start reducing and stopped now to maximum one day to travel across the world. Nowday’s airplane is the fastest means of transport. Many mind worked on it. It is worth full to say that technology has made this world of shortcuts. Technology is increasing, time is decreasing, society is becoming hi-techand they are forgetting their customs and traditions.

A day was when to talk with each other or convey message to each other one had to travel a lot but now days we can interact with a person sitting hundred of km away from us.

The technology is always a surprising us.

Below a boy writes a letter to his father.
Karolbagh, Delhi

Respected father,

How are you? I’m fine hare hoping that you are in the pink of your health. I want to tell you about a wonderfulmachine. A new machine is introduced in our college exhibition. I don’t know how the picture keeps moving in it. It was black in colour. It was as large as rhinocirous.It has a screen in which black and white pictures keeps moving. We can move to other channel by its remote which has a light in it. The channel is changed by the light. People call this machine a television. They say it is invented by Mr. JL Baird. I wonder how people kept moving in it.It’s my wish to have the same machine in our house. But it seems impossible to me.



And after many years the boy grows and talks to his son on MOBILE.

Manish: Hello, dad how do you do?

(Father)Rahul: I am fine here. May I know for what reason you called me?

Manish: Dad, do you know today I saw an amazing machine kept in the showroom.

Rahul: What was it? What was so amazing in it?

Manish: It was a television but it was hanging to the wall. It was LED. Its picture quality was very good that I could also see the audience sitting in the stadium clearly. It is directly connected to the satellite. It has many functions. We can write anything in the TV, usepassword, do online chat and many more.

Rahul: wow, it sounds a wonder machine. When I first saw television in 18s I was aamazed to see it, which was without sound, colorless.Technology is improving time by time. The credit goes only to the brilliant minds of the scientist.

Manish: So dad can we buy it please?

Rahul: yesof course, but I know a day will come when all the televisions would show programs in 3d, HD and have better sound quality.

Ok bye son.

Manish: Bye daddy.


Personal development will improve the community and in turn, the country as well Start developing.

Explosion of knowledge and information, based on breathtaking advancement in the field of science and technology, has bestowed on man powers enviable even for gods. It has helped man conquer space and time. Now he has unraveled many mysteries of nature and life and is ready to face new challenges and move forward in the realm of the unknown and the undiscovered.

In India there has been a long and distinct tradition of scientific research and technological advancement since ancient times. Since independence, we have accelerated our speed and efforts in this field and have established many research laboratories, institutions of higher learning and technical education. The results have been such as would make anybody’s heart swell with pride, confidence and a sense of fulfillment. The best, however, is yet to come.

The central and state governments, various public and private sector establishments are engaged in scientific research and technological development to take the nation on the path of rapid development, growth and prosperity. There are about 200 research laboratories spread all over the country. The institutions of higher learning, and universities, the modern temples of learning, are all committed to take the country forward. They are well equipped and staffed to secure for the people of the nation all the blessings and benefits that can accrue from the acquisition and application of scientific knowledge and technology. But there is no room for complacency, for in this field only the sky is the limit and we are yet a developing country.

We’ll enhance development if we use our traditional skills and knowledge.

Our technology policy is comprehensive and well thought out. It aims at developing indigenous technology to ensure efficient absorption and adoption of imported technology suitable to national priorities and availability of resources. Its main objective is attainment of technical competence and self- reliance, leading to reduction in vulnerability in strategic and critical areas. With a view to strengthening our economy and industrial development, our government has introduced many structural reforms through adoption of a new industrial policy which has an important bearing on the programmes of development pertaining to science and technology. Consequently, technology has become our mainstay enterprise and now we have built a strong and reliable infrastructure for research, training and development in science and technology.

In the field of agriculture, our scient ific and technological researches have enabled us to be self-reliant and self-sufficient in food grains. Today, we can withstand droughts and natural calamities with much greater confidence than ever before. Now, we are in a position to export food grains, etc. and are on the threshold of white and blue revolutions. Thanks to our agricultural scientists and farmers, always ready to imbibe new technologies, we have many varieties of hybrid seeds, crop- protection technologies, balanced farming practices and better water and irrigation management techniques. Similarly in the field of industrial research, we have achieved many milestones and India is emerging as a major industrial power of the world. The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), with its network of research laboratories and institutions, has been chiefly instrumental in our major achievements in scientific and industrial research. We have now joined the exclusive club of six advanced nations by developing our own super computer at the Centre for Development of Advance Computing (C- CAD) at Pune.

Our Atomic Research Commission, set up in 1948, is engaged in valuable nuclear research for peaceful purposes. The executive agency for implementing atomic energy programmes is the Department of Atomic Energy. The Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, near Mumbai is the biggest single scientific establishment in the country, directing nuclear research. Now, we have five research reactors, including Cirus, Dhruua, Zerina and Purnima. We have carried out two underground nuclear tests at Pokharan in Rajasthan. This is a remarkable achievement by our nuclear scientists, which has enabled us to become one of the selected few countries of the world to have done it. India is also the first developing country, and one of the seven countries of the world to master fast breeding technology. Research in breeder technology is currently going on at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research at Kalpakkam, Chennai.

The successful launching of Polar Space Launching Vehicle (PSLV- D-2), in October 1994, marked India’s entry into the league of the world’s major space powers. In the INSAT-2 series of satellites, launched first in 1992, India has shown its ability to fabricate complex systems comparable to anything made anywhere in the world. Our previous launches of the SLV-3 and the SLV were merely stepping stones to what will be the workhorses of the business, the PSLV, which can launch one tone satellite into orbit of up to 1000 km, and the

Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle, which can take 2.5 tonne satellite to orbits 36,000 km away. India’s space programmed rocketed to greater heights with the successful launch of the second Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV-D2) in May, 2003. As has been rightly observed, the challenge before Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is to maintain the momentum of the programmed by integrating it with other missions. The most obvious ones are related to military communication and reconnaissance.

Our success on Antarctica speaks volumes of our scientific genius and technological wisdom in the field. So far, 13 scientific expeditions by our oceanographers, scientists and technicians have been to Antarctica and we have two permanent stations on the icy continent.

In the field of defence also our achievements have been quite laudable. The successful production of such missiles as Prithvi and Nag testify to the high capabilities and achievements of our scientists. We have also been successful in producing opt-electronic fire control and night-vision devices required for our indigenous tanks. The HAL at Bangalore has already produced Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH).

Thus, we see that India has made unprecedented development in the field of scientific research and technology during the post-independence period and this just seems to be the beginning of a road with endless possibilities. All we need is to plan and organize in a way so as to be able to harness our intelligentsia in the right direction and provide it with the right opportunities.

Obviously, technology has been used effectively as a tool and instrument of national development and yet much remains to be achieved in order to make its benefits reach the masses. Scientists in the country will have to strive hard to take technological developments to people’s doorsteps. Therefore, they cannot rest on their laurels, but should remember the famous and inspiring lines of the poet Robert Frost:
The woods are lovely, dark and deep,

But I have promises to keep,

And miles to go before I sleep.


Technology during World War I reflected a trend toward industrialism and the application of mass production methods to weapons and to the technology of warfare in general. This trend began fifty years prior to World War I during the U.S. Civil War, and continued through many smaller conflicts in which new weapons were tested.

August 1914 marked the end of a relatively peaceful century in Europe with unprecedented invention and new science. The 19th-century vision of a peaceful future fed by ever-increasing prosperity through technology was largely shattered by the war's end; after the technological escalation during World War II, it was apparent that whatever the gains in prosperity and comfort due to technology applied to civilian uses, these benefits would always be under the shadow of the horrors of technology applied to warfare.

 The earlier years of the First World War can be characterized as a clash of 20th-century technology with 19th-century warfare in the form of ineffectual battles with huge numbers of casualties on both sides. It was not until the final year of the war that the major armies made effective steps in revolutionizing matters of command and control and tactics to adapt to the modern battlefield, and started to harness the myriad new technologies to effective military purposes. Tactical reorganizations (such as shifting the focus of command from the 100+ man company to the 10+ man squad) went hand-in-hand with armored cars, the first submachine guns, and automatic rifles that could be carried and used by one man.


Trench warfare

The new metallurgical and bio industries, and many innovative mechanical inventions, had created new firepower that made defense almost invincible and attack almost impossible. These innovations included bolt-action infantry rifles, rifled artillery and hydraulic recoil mechanisms, zigzag trenches and machine guns, and their application had the effect of making it difficult or nearly impossible to cross defended ground. The hand grenade, already in existence —though crude—developed rapidly as an aid to attacking trenches. Probably the most important was the introduction of high explosive shells, which dramatically increased the lethality of artillery over the 19th-century equivalents.

Trench warfare led to the development of the concrete pill box, a hardened blockhouse that could be used to deliver machine gun fire. They could be placed across a battlefield with interlocking fields of fire.


At the beginning of the war, artillery was often sited in the front line to fire over open sights at enemy infantry. During the war, the following improvements were made:

· the first "box barrage" in history was fired at NeuveChapelle in 1915; this was the use of a three- or four-sided curtain of shell-fire to prevent the movement of enemy infantry

· the wire-cutting No. 106 fuze was developed, specifically designed to explode on contact with barbed wire, or the ground before the shell buried itself in mud, and equally effective as an anti-personnel weapon

· the first anti-aircraft guns were designed out of necessity

· indirect counter-battery fire was developed for the first time in history

· flash spotting and sound ranging were invented, for the location and eventual destruction of enemy batteries

· the creeping barrage was perfected

· factors such as weather, air temperature, and barrel wear could for the first time be accurately measured and taken into account when firing indirectly

· forward observers were used to direct artillery positioned out of direct line of sight from the targets, and sophisticated communications and fire plans were developed

· The majority of casualties inflicted during the war were the result of artillery fire.
Poison gas

At the beginning of the war, Germany had the most advanced chemical industry in the world, accounting for more than 80% of the world's dye and chemical production. Although the use of poison gas had been banned in the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907, Germany turned to this industry for what it hoped would be a decisive weapon to break the deadlock of trench warfare. Chlorine gas was first used on the battlefield in April 1915 at the Second Battle of Ypres in Belgium. The unknown gas appeared to be a simple smoke screen, used to hide attacking soldiers, and Allied troops were ordered to the front trenches to repel the expected attack. The gas had a devastating effect, killing many defenders. Later, mustard gas, phosgene and other gases were used. Britain and France soon followed suit with their own gas weapons. The first defenses against gas were makeshift, mainly rags soaked in water or urine. Later, relatively effective gas masks were developed, and these greatly reduced the effectiveness of gas as a weapon. Although it sometimes resulted in brief tactical advantages and probably caused over 1,000,000 casualties, gas seemed to have had no significant effect on the course of the war.


Railways dominated in this war as in no other. Through railways, men and material could be moved to the front at an unprecedented rate, but they were very vulnerable at the front itself. Thus, advancing armies could only move forward at the pace that they could build or rebuild a railway, e.g. the British advance across Sinai. Motorized transport did feature in World War I, but only rarely. After the railhead, troops moved on foot and guns were drawn by horses. The German strategy was known beforehand by the Allies simply because of the vast marshaling yards on the Belgian border that had no other purpose than to deliver the mobilized German army to its start point. The German mobilization plan was little more than a vast detailed railway timetable. Railways lacked the flexibility of motor transport and this lack of flexibility percolated through into the conduct of the war.

Air warfare

As with most other technologies, the aircraft underwent many improvements during World War I. Early war aircraft were not much different in design from the original Wright Flyer, which made its first flight over a decade earlier.

While early air spotters were unarmed, they soon began firing at each other with handheld weapons and even throwing spears. An arms race commenced, quickly leading to increasingly agile planes equipped with machine guns. A key innovation was the interrupter gear, a German invention that allowed a machine gun to be mounted behind the propeller so the pilot could fire directly ahead, along the plane's flight path.

As the stalemate developed on the ground, with both sides unable to advance even a few miles without a major battle and thousands of casualties, planes became greatly valued for their role gathering intelligence on enemy positions and bombing the enemy's supplies behind the trench lines. Large planes with a pilot and an observer were used to reconnoiter enemy positions and bomb their supply bases. Because they were large and slow, these planes made easy targets for enemy fighter planes. As a result, both sides used fighter aircraft to both attack the enemy's observer planes and protect their own.

Germany led the world in the design of Zeppelins, and used these airships to make occasional bombing raids on military targets, London and other British cities, without any great effect. Later in the war, Germany began attacking English cities with long range strategic bombers. As with the Zeppelin attacks, Germany's strategic bombing of England had limited tactical value, but it was demoralizing and showed the British they could not be completely immune from the effects of the war in their own country. It also forced the British air forces to maintain squadrons of fighters in England to defend against air attack, depriving the British Expeditionary Force of planes, equipment, and personnel badly needed on the Western front.


Although the concept of the tank had been suggested as early as the 1890s, few authorities showed interest in them until the trench stalemate of World War I caused serious contemplation of unending war and ever escalating casualties. In Britain, a Landships Committee was formed, and teamed with the Inventions Committee, set out to develop a practical weapon.

Based on the caterpillar track (first invented in 1770 and perfected in the early 1900s) and the four-stroke gasoline powered Internal combustion engine (refined in the 1870s), early tanks were fitted with Maxim type guns or Lewis guns, armor plating, and their caterpillar tracks were configured to allow crossing of an 8-foot-wide (2.4 m) trench.

Early tanks were unreliable, breaking down often. Though they first terrified the Germans, their use in 1917 engagements provided more opportunities for development than actual battle successes. It was also realized that new tactics had to be developed to make best use of this weapon. In particular, planners learned that tanks needed infantry support and massed formations to be effective. Once tanks could be fielded in the hundreds, such as they were at the Battle of Cambrai in November 1917, they began to show their potential. Still, reliability was the achilles heel of tanks throughout the remainder of the war. In the Battle of Amiens, a major Entente counteroffensive near the end of the war, British forces went to field with 534 tanks. After several days, only a few were still in commission, those that suffered mechanical difficulties outnumbering those disabled by enemy fire.

Regardless of their effects on World War I, tank technology and mechanized warfare had been launched and grew increasingly sophisticated in the years following the war. By World War II, the tank had evolved to a fearsome weapon which made the trench obsolete, just as the trench and the machine gun had made horse-mounted cavalry obsolete.

Naval Warfare

The years leading up to the war saw the use of improved metallurgical and mechanical techniques to produce larger ships with larger guns and, in reaction, more armor. The launching of HMS Dreadnought (1906) revolutionized battleship construction, leaving many ships obsolete before they were completed. Consequently, at the start of the war, many navies comprised newer ships and obsolete older ones. The advantage was in long-range gunnery, and naval battles took place at far greater distances than before. The Battle of Jutland (1916) was the only full-scale battle between fleets in the war.

Having the largest surface fleet, the United Kingdom sought to press its advantage. British ships blockaded German ports, hunted down German and Austro-Hungarian ships wherever they might be on the high seas, and supported actions against German colonies. The German surface fleet was largely kept in the North Sea. This situation pushed Germany, in particular, to direct its resources to a new form of naval power: submarines.


World War I was the first conflict in which submarines were a serious weapon of war. In the years shortly before the war, the relatively sophisticated propulsion system of diesel power while surfaced and battery power while submerged was introduced.

The United Kingdom relied heavily on imports to feed its population and supply its war industry, and the German navy hoped to blockade and starve Britain using U-boats to attack merchant ships in unrestricted submarine warfare. This struggle between German submarines and British counter measures became known as the First Battle of the Atlantic. As German submarines became more numerous and effective, the British sought ways to protect their merchant ships. "Q-ships," attack vessels disguised as civilian ships, were one early strategy.

Consolidating merchant ships into convoys protected by one or more armed navy vessels was adopted later in the war. There was initially a great deal of debate about this approach, out of fear that it would just provide German U-boats with a wealth of convenient targets. Thanks to the development of active and passive sonar devices,[3] coupled with increasingly deadly anti-submarine weapons, the convoy system reduced British losses to U-boats to a small fraction of their former level. Lieutenant Otto Weddigen remarked of the first submarine attack of the Great War:

“How much they feared our submarines and how wide was the agitation caused by good little U-9 is shown by the English reports that a whole flotilla of German submarines had attacked the cruisers and that this flotilla had approached under cover of the flag of Holland. These reports were absolutely untrue. U-9 was the only submarine on deck, and she flew the flag she still flies -- the German naval ensign.”

Small Arms 

The machine gun directly impacted the organization of the infantry in 1914, and, by the middle of 1917, put an end to the tactic of company sized waves. Platoons and squads of men became important; hand in hand with that organization was the use of light automatic weapons. The Lewis Gun was the first true light machine gun that could in theory be operated by one man, though in practice the bulky ammo pans required an entire section of men to keep the gun operating (Postwar research would show that its ingenious, but heavy and intricate, air cooling ducts were entirely unnecessary). The Browning Automatic Rifle was adopted by the U.S. Army in 1918; adapters on cartridge belts allowed the BAR man to walk and fire the gun at the same time. Early sub-machine guns were also developed in this period. While in use, these guns would often overheat - which led to the development of several cooling methods.

Flame throwers

The Imperial German Army deployed flame throwers (Flammenwerfer) on the West Front attempting to flush out French or British soldiers from their trenches. Introduced in 1915, it was used with greatest effect during the Hooge battle of the Western Front on 30 July 1915. The German Army had two main types of flame throwers during the Great War: a small single person version called the Kleinflammenwerfer and a larger multiple person configuration called the Grossflammenwerfer. In the latter, one soldier carried the fuel tank while another aimed the nozzle. Both the large and small versions of the flame-thrower were of limited use because their short range left the operator(s) exposed to small arms fire.

WORLD WAR II For all the role of science, mathematics, and new inventions in earlier wars, no war had as profound an effect on the technologies of our current lives than World War II (1939-45). And no war was as profoundly affected by science, math, and technology than WWII.

We can point to numerous new inventions and scientific principles that emerged during the war. These include advances in rocketry, pioneered by Nazi Germany. The V-1 or “buzz bomb” was an automatic aircraft (today known as a “cruise missile”) and the V-2 was a “ballistic missile” that flew into space before falling down on its target (both were rained on London during 1944-45, killing thousands of civilians). The “rocket team” that developed these weapons for Germany were brought to the United States after World War II, settled in Huntsville, Alabama, under their leader Wernher von Braun, and then helped to build the rockets that sent American astronauts into space and to the moon. Electronic computers were developed by the British for breaking the Nazi “Enigma” codes, and by the Americans for calculating ballistics and other battlefield equations. Numerous small “computers”—from hand-held calculating tables made out of cardboard, to mechanical trajectory calculators, to some of the earliest electronic digital computers, could be found in everything from soldiers’ pockets to large command and control centers. Early control centers aboard ships and aircraft pioneered the networked, interactive computing that is so central to our lives today.


The entire technology of radar, which is the ability to use radio waves to detect objects at a distance, was barely invented at the start of the war but became highly developed in just a few years at sites like the “Radiation Laboratory” at MIT. By allowing people to “see” remotely, at very long distances, radar made the idea of “surprise attack” virtually obsolete and vastly enlarged the arena of modern warfare (today’s radars can see potential attackers from thousands of miles away). Radar allowed nations to track incoming air attacks, guided bombers to their targets, and directed anti-aircraft guns toward airplanes flying high above. Researchers not only constructed the radars, but also devised countermeasures: during their bombing raids, Allied bombers dropped thousands of tiny strips of tinfoil, code-named “window” and “chaff” to jam enemy radar.

By constructing complex pieces of electronic equipment that had to be small, rugged, and reliable, radar engineering also set the foundations for modern electronics, especially television. Radar signals could also be used for navigation, as a ship or airplane could measure its distance from several radar bacons to “triangulate” its position. A system for radar navigation, called LORAN (long-range navigation) was the precursor to today’s satellite-based GPS technology.

The military found other uses for radar. Meteorologists, for example, could track storms with this new technology—a crucial skill to have when planning major military operations like D-Day. When weapons designers discovered a way to place tiny radar sets onto artillery shells, the proximity fuse was invented. These new fuses would explode when they neared their targets. By the end of the war, proximity fuses had became a critical component in many anti-aircraft shells.


World War II also saw advances in medical technology. Penicillin was not invented during the war, but it was first mass produced during the war, the key to making it available to millions of people (during World War II it was mostly used to treat the venereal diseases gonorrhea and syphilis, which had been the scourge of armies for thousands of years).

While penicillin itself is still used today, it was also the precursor to the antibiotics that we take today to keep simple infections from becoming life-threatening illnesses. Medicines against tropical diseases like malaria also became critical for the United States to fight in tropical climates like the South Pacific. Pesticides like DDT played a critical role in killing mosquitoes (although the environmental impacts of DDT would last a long time; a famous book about DDT, Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring (1962), would help found the modern environmental movement). The science and technology of blood transfusions were also perfected during World War II, as was aviation medicine, which allowed people (including us) to fly safely at high altitudes for long periods. Studies of night vision, supplemental oxygen, even crash helmets and safety belts emerged from aviation medicine.

The fields of science and math and the technology that their study produces is not restricted to any one country or side in a war. Scientific and technological progress served both sides in WWII. Both sides poured national resources into developing new and better weapons, materials, techniques for training and fighting, improvements in transportation, medicine, nutrition, and communications. Science and math also know no morality. Alone, they can exist in pure form, devoid of practical use for good or bad. It is only when people apply their actions, desires, intentions to that science and math that they have an opportunity to use them for positive or negative purposes. Each generation of humans can then examine those uses and decide for themselves as a society and as individuals if that science and math was used wisely or not.
Effects on Warfare

Almost all types of technology were utilized, although major developments were:

Weaponry; including ships, vehicles, aircraft, artillery, rocketry, small arms, and biological, chemical and atomic weapons.

Logistical support; including vehicles necessary for transporting soldiers and supplies, such as trains, trucks, and aircraft.

Communications and intelligence; including devices used for navigation, communication, remote sensing and espionage.

Medicine; including surgical innovations, chemical medicines, and techniques

Industry; including the technologies employed at factories and production/distribution centers.

This was perhaps the first war where military operations were aimed at the research efforts of the enemy e.g.

· The exfiltration of Niels Bohr from German-occupied Denmark to Britain in 1943

· The sabotage of Norwegian heavy water production

· The bombing of Peenemunde

Military operations were also conducted to obtain intelligence on the enemy's technology e.g. the Bruneval Raid for German radar and Operation Most III for the German V-2.
Military weapons technology experienced rapid advances during World War II, and over six years there was a disorientating rate of change in combat in everything from aircraft to small arms. Indeed the war began with most armies utilizing technology that had changed little from World War I, and in some cases, had remained unchanged since the 19th century. For instance cavalry, trenches, and World War I-era battleships were normal in 1940, however within only six years, armies around the world had developed jet aircraft, ballistic missiles, and even atomic weapons in the case of the United States.

The best jet fighters at the end of the war easily outflew any of the leading aircraft of 1939, such as the Spitfire Mark I. The early war bombers that caused such carnage would almost all have been shot down in 1945, many with two shots, by radar-aimed, proximity fuse-detonated anti-aircraft fire, just as the 1941 "invincible fighter", the Zero, had by 1944 become the "turkey" of the "Marianas Turkey Shoot". The best late-war tanks, such as the Soviet JS-3 heavy tank or the German Panther medium tank, handily outclassed the best tanks of 1939 such as Panzer IIIs. In the navy the battleship, long seen as the dominant element of sea power, was displaced by the greater range and striking power of the aircraft carrier. The chaotic importance of amphibious landings stimulated the Western Allies to develop the Higgins boat, a primary troop landing craft; the DUKW, a six-wheel-drive amphibious truck, amphibious tanks to enable beach landing attacks and Landing Ship, Tanks to land tanks on beaches. Increased organization and coordination of amphibious assaults coupled with the resources necessary to sustain them caused the complexity of planning to increase by orders of magnitude, thus requiring formal systematization giving rise to what has become the modern management methodology of project management by which almost all modern engineering, construction and software developments are organized.


In the Western European Theatre of World War II, air power became crucial throughout the war, both in tactical and strategic operations (respectively, battlefield and long-range). Superior German aircraft, aided by ongoing introduction of design and technology innovations, allowed the German armies to overrun Western Europe with great speed in 1940, largely assisted by lack of Allied aircraft, which in any case lagged in design and technical development during the slump in research investment after the Great Depression. Since the end of World War I, the French Air Force had been badly neglected, as military leaders preferred to spend money on ground armies and static fortifications to fight another World War I-style war. As a result, by 1940, the French Air Force had only 1562 planes and was together with 1070 RAF planes facing 5,638 Luftwaffe fighters and fighter-bombers. Most French airfields were located in north-east France, and were quickly overrun in the early stages of the campaign. The Royal Air Force of the United Kingdom possessed some very advanced fighter planes, such as Spitfires and Hurricanes, but these were not useful for attacking ground troops on a battlefield, and the small number of planes dispatched to France with the British Expeditionary Force were destroyed fairly quickly. Subsequently, the Luftwaffe was able to achieve air superiority over France in 1940, giving the German military an immense advantage in terms of reconnaissance and intelligence.

German aircraft rapidly achieved air superiority over France in early 1940, allowing the Luftwaffe to begin a campaign of strategic bombing against British cities. With France out of the war, German bomber planes based near the English Channel were able to launch raids on London and other cities during the Blitz, with varying degrees of success.

After World War I, the concept of massed aerial bombing—"The bomber will always get through"—had become very popular with politicians and military leaders seeking an alternative to the carnage of trench warfare, and as a result, the air forces of Britain, France, and Germany had developed fleets of bomber planes to enable this (France's bomber wing was severely neglected, whilst Germany's bombers were developed in secret as they were explicitly forbidden by the Treaty of Versailles).

The bombing of Shanghai by the Imperial Japanese Navy on January 28, 1932 and August 1937 and the bombings during the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939), had demonstrated the power of strategic bombing, and so air forces in Europe and the United States came to view bomber aircraft as extremely powerful weapons which, in theory, could bomb an enemy nation into submission on their own. As a result, the fear of bombers triggered major developments in aircraft technology.


The Treaty of Versailles had imposed severe restrictions upon Germany constructing vehicles for military purposes, and so throughout the 1920s and 1930s, German arms manufacturers and the Wehrmacht had begun secretly developing tanks. As these vehicles were produced in secret, their technical specifications and battlefield potentials were largely unknown to the European Allies until the war actually began. When German troops invaded the Benelux nations and France in May 1940, German weapons technology proved to be immeasurably superior to that of the Allies.

The French Army suffered from serious technical deficiencies with its tanks. In 1918, the Renault FT-17 tanks of France had been the most advanced in the world, although small, capable of far outperforming their slow and clumsy British, German, or American counterparts. However, this superiority resulted in tank development stagnating after World War I. By 1939, French tanks were virtually unchanged from 1918.[dubious – discuss] French and British Generals believed that a future war with Germany would be fought under very similar conditions as those of 1914–1918. Both invested in thickly-armoured, heavily-armed vehicles designed to cross shell damaged ground and trenches under fire. At the same time the British also developed faster but lightly armoured Cruiser tanks to range behind the enemy lines.

In contrast, the Wehrmacht invested in fast, light tanks designed to overtake infantry. These vehicles would vastly outperform British and French tanks in mechanized battles. German tanks followed the design of France's 1918 Renault versions—a moderately-armoured hull with a rotating turret on top mounting a cannon. This gave every German tank the potential to engage other armoured vehicles. In contrast, around 35% of French tanks were simply equipped with machine guns (again designed for trench warfare), meaning that when French and German met in battle, a third of the French assault vehicles would not be able to engage enemy tanks, their machine-gun fire only ricocheting off German armour plates. Only a handful of French tanks had radios, and these often broke as the tank lurched over uneven ground. German tanks were, on the contrary, all equipped with radios, allowing them to communicate with one another throughout battles, whilst French tank commanders could rarely contact other vehicles.

The Matilda Mk I tanks of the British Army were also designed for infantry support and were protected by thick armour. This was ideal for trench warfare,[dubious – discuss] but made the tanks painfully slow in open battles. Their light cannons[dubious – discuss] and machine-guns were usually unable to inflict serious damage on German vehicles. The exposed caterpillar tracks were easily broken by gunfire, and the Matilda tanks had a tendency to incinerate their crews if hit,[citation needed] as the petrol tanks were located on the top of the hull. By contrast the Infantry tank Matilda II fielded in lesser numbers was largely invulnerable to German gunfire and its gun was able to punch through the German tanks. However French and British tanks were at a disadvantage compared to the air supported German armoured assaults, and a lack of armoured support contributed significantly to the rapid Allied collapse in 1940.


Naval warfare changed dramatically during World War II, with the ascent of the aircraft carrier to the premier vessel of the fleet, and the impact of increasingly capable submarines on the course of the war. The development of new ships during the war was somewhat limited due to the protracted time period needed for production, but important developments were often retrofitted to older vessels. Advanced German submarine types came into service too late and after nearly all the experienced crews had been lost.

The German U-boats were used primarily for stopping/destroying the resources from the United States and Canada coming across the Atlantic. Submarines were critical in the Pacific Ocean as well as in the Atlantic Ocean. Japanese defenses against Allied submarines were ineffective. Much of the merchant fleet of the Empire of Japan, needed to supply its scattered forces and bring supplies such as petroleum and food back to the Japanese Archipelago, was sunk. This kept them from training adequate replacements for their lost aircrews and even forced the navy to be based near its oil supply. Among the warships sunk by submarines was the war's largest aircraft carrier, the Shinano.

The most important shipboard advances were in the field of anti-submarine warfare. Driven by the desperate necessity of keeping Britain supplied, technologies for the detection and destruction of submarines was advanced at high priority. The use of ASDIC (SONAR) became widespread and so did the installation of shipboard and airborne radar.

Small arms development

New production methods for weapons such as stamping, riveting, and welding came into being to produce the number of arms needed. While this had been tried before, during World War I, it had resulted in quite possibly the worst firearm ever adopted by any military for use: the French Chauchat light machine gun. Design and production methods had advanced enough to manufacture weapons of reasonable reliability such as the PPSh-41, PPS-42, Sten, MP 40, M3 Grease Gun, Gewehr 43, Thompson submachine gun and the M1 Garand rifle. Other Weapons commonly found During World War II include the American, Browning Automatic Rifle (BAR), M1 Carbine Rifle, as well as the Colt M1911; The Japanese Type 100 submachine gun, the Type 99 machine gun, and the Arisaka bolt action rifle all were significant weapons used during the war.

World War II saw the birth of the reliable semi-automatic rifle, such as the American M1 Garand and, more importantly, that of the first real assault rifles. The Germans essentially created and pioneered the idea of an "assault rifle" or sturmgewehr, coining the name for the species in the process. Earlier renditions that hinted at this idea were that of the employment of the Browning Automatic Rifle and 1916 FedorovAvtomat in a walking fire tactic in which men would advance on the enemy position showering it with a hail of lead. The Germans first developed the FG 42 for its paratroopers in the assault and later the Sturmgewehr 44 (StG 44), the world's first true assault rifle. The FG 42 would probably hold this place but for its use of a full powered rifle cartridge making it hard to control by an unskilled operator.

During the conflict, many new models of bolt-action rifles were produced as a result of lessons learned from the First World War with the designs of a number of bolt-action infantry rifles being modified in order to speed up production as well as to make the rifles more compact and easier to handle. Examples of bolt-action rifles that were used during World War II include the German Mauser Kar98k, the British Lee-Enfield No.4, and the Springfield M1903A3. During the course of World War II, bolt-action rifles and carbines were modified even further to meet new forms of warfare the armies of certain nations faced e.g. urban warfare and jungle warfare. Examples include the Soviet Mosin-Nagant M1944 carbine, which were developed by the Soviets as a result of the Red Army's experiences with urban warfare e.g. the Battle of Stalingrad, and the British Lee-Enfield No.5 carbine, that were developed for British and Commonwealth forces fighting the Japanese in South-East Asia and the Pacific.

The atomic bomb

The massive research and development demands of the war included the Manhattan Project, the effort to quickly develop an atomic bomb, or nuclear fission warhead. It was perhaps the most profound military development of the war, and had a great impact on the scientific community, among other things creating a network of national laboratories in the United States.

Development was completed too late for use in the European Theater of World War II. Its invention meant that a single bomber aircraft could carry a weapon sufficiently powerful to devastate entire cities, making conventional warfare against a nation with an arsenal of them suicidal.

The strategic importance of the bomb, and its even more powerful fusion-based successors, did not become fully apparent until the United States lost its monopoly on the weapon in the post-war era. The Soviet Union developed and tested their first nuclear weapon in 1949, based partially on information obtained from Soviet espionage in the United States. Nuclear competition between the two superpowers played a large part in the development of the Cold War. The strategic implications of such a massively destructive weapon still reverberate in the 21st century.

The Empire of Japan was also developing an Atomic Bomb, however, it floundered due to lack of resources despite gaining interest from the government.

Industrial technology

While the development of new equipment was rapid, it was also important to be able to produce these tools and get them to the troops in appropriate quantity. Those nations that were able to maximize their industrial capacity and mobilize it for the war effort were most successful at equipping their troops in a timely way with adequate material. An outstanding German innovation was the Jerrycan which carries by its name a tribute to its success.

One of the biggest developments was the ability to produce synthetic rubber. Natural rubber was mainly harvested in the South Pacific, and the Allies were cut off from a large quantity of it due to Japanese expansion. Thus the development of synthetic rubber allowed for the Allied war machine to continue growing, giving the US a significant technical edge as World War II continued.

For the Germans it was the development of alternative fuels as in hydrogen peroxide - which would be a forerunner to the development of fuel-cell technology and synthetic fuel technology.



peoples (Sumerians, Akkadians, Assyrians and Babylonians) invented many technologies, most notably the wheel, which some consider the most important mechanical invention in history. Other Mesopotamian inventions include metalworking, copper-working, glassmaking, lamp making, textile weaving, flood control, water storage, as well as irrigation. They were also one of the first Bronze age people in the world. Early on they used copper, bronze and gold, and later they used iron. Palaces were decorated with hundreds of kilograms of these very expensive metals. Also, copper, bronze, and iron were used for armor as well as for different weapons such as swords, daggers, spears, and maces. One of the first big ancient inventions was the invention of the wheel in eastern Mesopotamia. This was a very big "hit" in Mesopotamia because the wheel could transport goods like metal through the hilly geographical features and was more versatile and helped the need for agricultural transport
Egyptians :

The Egyptians invented and used many simple machines, such as the ramp to aid construction processes. They were among the first to extract gold by large-scale mining using fire-setting, and the first recognisable map, the Turin papyrus shows the plan of one such mine in Nubia. Egyptian paper, made from papyrus, and pottery was mass produced and exported throughout the Mediterranean basin. The wheel, however, did not arrive until foreign invaders introduced the chariot. They developed Mediterranean maritime technology including ships and lighthouses. For later technologies in Ptolemaic Egypt, Roman Egypt, and Arab Egypt, see Ancient Greek technology, Roman technology and Inventions in medieval Islam respectively.

Science and technology in Africa has a history stretching to the beginning of the human species, stretching back to the first evidence of tool use by hominid ancestors in the areas of Africa where humans are believed to have evolved. Africa saw the advent of some the earliest ironworking technology in the Air Mountains region of what is today Niger and the erection of some of the world's oldest monuments, pyramids and towers in Egypt, Nubia, and North Africa. In Nubia and ancient Kush, glazed quartzite and building in brick was developed to a greater extent than in Egypt. Parts of the East African Swahili coast saw the creation of the world's oldest carbon steel creation with high-temperature blast furnaces created by the Haya people of Tanzania.
Indus :

The Indus Valley Civilization, situated in a resource-rich area, is notable for its early application of city planning and sanitation technologies. Cites in the Indus Valley offer some of the first examples of closed gutters, public baths, and communal granaries. The Takshashila University was an important seat of learning in the ancient world. It was the center of education for scholars from all over Asia. Many Greek, Persian and Chinese students studied here under great scholars including Kautilya, Panini, Jivaka, and Vishnu Sharma. Ancient India was also at the forefront of seafaring technology - a panel found at Mohenjodaro, depicts a sailing craft. Ship construction is vividly described in the YuktiKalpaTaru, an ancient Indian text on Shipbuilding. The YuktiKalpaTaru, compiled by BhojaNarapati is concerned with shipbuilding. (The YuktiKalpaTaru had been translated and published by Prof. Aufrecht in his 'Catalogue of Sanskrit Manuscripts'). Indian construction and architectur
China :

Major technological contributions from China include early seismological detectors, matches, paper, the double-action piston pump, cast iron, the iron plough, the multi-tube seed drill, the suspension bridge, natural gas as fuel, the magnetic compass, the raised-relief map, the propeller, the crossbow, the South Pointing Chariot, and gun powder. Other Chinese discoveries and inventions from the Medieval period, according to Joseph Needham's research, include: block printing and movable type, phosphorescent paint, and the spinning wheel. The solid-fuel rocket was invented in China about 1150 AD, nearly 200 years after the invention of black powder (which acted as the rocket's fuel). At the same time that the age of exploration was occurring in the West, the Chinese emperors of the Ming Dynasty also sent ships, some reaching Africa. But the enterprises were not further funded, halting further exploration and development. When Ferdinand Magellan's ships reached Brunei in 1521, they
Greek and Hellenistic:

engineers invented many technologies and improved upon pre-existing technologies, particularly during the Hellenistic period. Heron of Alexandria invented a basic steam engine and demonstrated knowledge of mechanic and pneumatic systems. Archimedes invented several machines. The Greeks were unique in pre-industrial times in their ability to combine scientific research with the development of new technologies. One example is the Archimedean screw; this technology was first conceptualized in mathematics, then built. Other technologies invented by Greek scientists include the ballistae, the piston pump, and primitive analog computers like the Antikythera mechanism. Greek architects were responsible for the first true domes, and were the first to explore the Golden ratio and its relationship with geometry and architecture. Apart from Hero of Alexandria's steam aeolipile, Hellenistic technicians were the first to invent watermills and windwheels, making them global pio

developed an intensive and sophisticated agriculture, expanded upon existing iron working technology, created laws providing for individual ownership, advanced stonemasonry technology, advanced road-building (exceeded only in the 19th century), military engineering, civil engineering, spinning and weaving and several different machines like the Gallic reaper that helped to increase productivity in many sectors of the Roman economy. They also developed water power through building aqueducts on a grand scale, using water not just for drinking supplies but also for irrigation, powering water mills and in mining. They used drainage wheels extensively in deep underground mines, one device being the reverse overshot water-wheel. They were the first to apply hydraulic mining methods for prospecting for metal ores, and for extracting those ores from the ground when found using a method known as hushing. Roman engineers build monumental arches, amphitheatres, aqueducts, public baths, tr

The native Americans developed a complex understanding of the chemical properties or utility of natural substances, with the result that a majority of the world's early medicinal drugs and edible crops, many important adhesives, paints, fibres, plasters, and other useful items were the products of these civilizations.[citation needed] Perhaps the best-known Mesoamerican invention was rubber, which was used to create rubber bands, rubber bindings, balls, syringes, 'raincoats,' boots, and waterproof insulation on containers and flasks.

Medieval technology refers to the technology used in medieval Europe under Christian rule. After the Renaissance of the 12th century, medieval Europe saw a radical change in the rate of new inventions, innovations in the ways of managing traditional means of production, and economic growth. The period saw major technological advances, including the adoption of gunpowder, the invention of vertical windmills, spectacles, mechanical clocks, and greatly improved water mills, building techniques (Gothic style, medieval castle), agriculture in general (three-field crop rotation).

The development of water mills from its ancient origins was impressive, and extended from agriculture to sawmills both for timber and stone. By the time of the Domesday Book, most large villages had turnable mills, around 6,500 in England alone. Water-power was also widely used in mining for raising ore from shafts, crushing ore, and even powering bellows.

European technical advancements in the 12th to 14th centuries were either built on long-established techniques in medieval Europe, originating from Roman and Byzantine antecedents, or adapted from cross-cultural exchanges through trading networks with the Islamic world, China, and India. Often, the revolutionary aspect lay not in the act of invention itself, but in its technological refinement and application to political and economic power. Though gunpowder had long been known to the Chinese, it was the Europeans who developed and perfected its military potential, precipitating European expansion and eventual imperialism in the Modern Era.

Also significant in this respect were advances in maritime technology. Advances in shipbuilding included the multi-masted ships with lateen sails, the sternpost-mounted rudder and the skeleton-first hull construction. Along with new navigational techniques such as the dry compass, the Jacob's staff and the astrolabe, these allowed economic and military control of all seas adjacent to Europe and enabled the global navigational achievements of the dawning Age of Exploration.

At the turn to the Renaissance, Gutenberg’s invention of mechanical printing made possible a dissemination of knowledge to a wider population, that would not only lead to a gradually more egalitarian society, but one more able to dominate other cultures, drawing from a vast reserve of knowledge and experience. The technical drawings of late medieval artist-engineers Guido da Vigevano and Villard de Honnecourt can be viewed as forerunners of later Renaissance works such as Taccola or da Vinci.

Heavy plough (5th-8th)

The heavy wheeled plough with a mouldboard first appears in the 5th century in Slavic lands, is then introduced into Northern Italy (the Po Valley) and by the 8th century it was used in the Rhineland. Essential in the efficient use of the rich, heavy, often wet soils of Northern Europe, its use allowed the area's forests and swamps to be brought under cultivation.

Hops (11th)

Added to beer, importance lay primarily in its ability to preserve beer and improve transportability for trade.

Horse collar (6th->9th)

Multiple evolutions from Classical Harness (Antiquity), to Breast Strap Harness (6th) to Horse collar (9th).Allowed more horse pulling power, such as with heavy ploughs.

Horseshoes (9th)

Allowed horse to adapt to non-grassland terrains in Europe (rocky terrain, mountains) and carry heavier loads. Possibly known to the Romans and Celts as early as 50 BC.

Wine press (12th)

First practical means of applying pressure on a plane surface. The principle later used for printing press.

Architecture and construction

Artesian well (1126)

A thin rod with a hard iron cutting edge is placed in the bore hole and repeatedly struck with a hammer, underground water pressure forces the water up the hole without pumping. Artesian wells are named after the town of Artois in France, where the first one was drilled by Carthusian monks in 1126.

Central heating through underfloor channels (9th century AD)

In the early medieval Alpine upland, a simpler central heating system where heat travelled through underfloor channels from the furnace room replaced the Roman hypocaust at some places. In Reichenau Abbey a network of interconnected underfloor channels heated the 300 m² large assembly room of the monks during the winter months. The degree of efficiency of the system has been calculated at 90%.

Rib vault (12th)

Essential element for the rise of Gothic architecture.Allowed vaults to be built for the first time over rectangles of unequal lengths.Also greatly facilitated scaffolding.Largely replaced older groin vault.

Chimney (12th century)

The earliest true chimneys appeared in Northern Europe during the 12th century, and with them came the first true fireplaces.

Segmental arch bridge (1345)

The Ponte Vecchio in Florence is considered medieval Europe's first stone segmental arch bridge.

Treadwheel crane (1220s)

Earliest reference to a treadwheel in archival literature in France about 1225, followed by an illuminated depiction in a manuscript of probably also French origin dating to 1240. Apart from tread-drums, windlasses and occasionally cranks were employed for powering cranes.

Stationary harbor crane (1244)

Stationary harbor cranes are considered a new development of the Middle Ages, its earliest use being documented for Utrecht in 1244. The typical harbor crane was a pivoting structure equipped with double treadwheels. There were two types: wooden gantry cranes pivoting on a central vertical axle and stone tower cranes which housed the windlass and treadwheels with only jib arm and roof rotating.These cranes were placed docksides for the loading and unloading of cargo where they replaced or complemented older lifting methods like see-saws, winches and yards. Slewing cranes which allowed a rotation of the load and were thus particularly suited for dockside work appeared as early as 1340.

Floating crane

Beside the stationary cranes, floating cranes which could be flexibly deployed in the whole port basin came into use by the 14th century.

Mast crane

Some harbour cranes were specialised at mounting masts to newly built sailing ships, such as in Danzig, Cologne and Bremen.

Wheelbarrow (1170s)

Proved useful in building construction, mining operations, and agriculture. Literary evidence for the use of wheelbarrows appeared between 1170 and 1250 in North-western Europe. First depiction in a drawing by Matthew Paris in the middle of the 13th century.


As early as the 13th century, oil was used to add details to tempera paintings. Major breakthrough by Flemish painter Jan van Eyck around 1410 who is credited with introducing a stable oil mixture.


Hourglass (1338)

Reasonably dependable, affordable and accurate measure of time. Unlike water in a clepsydra, the rate of flow of sand is independent of the depth in the upper reservoir, and the instrument is not liable to freeze. Hourglasses are a medieval innovation (first documented in Siena, Italy).

Mechanical clocks (13th->14th)

A European innovation, these weight-driven clocks were used primarily in clock towers.


Compound crank

The Italian physician Guido da Vigevano combines in his 1335 Texaurus, a collection of war machines intended for the recapture of the Holy Land, two simple cranks to form a compound crank for manually powering war carriages and paddle wheel boats. The devices were fitted directly to the vehicle's axle respectively to the shafts turning the paddle wheels.


Paper mill (13th)

The first certain of a water-powered paper mill, evidence for which is elusive in both Chinese and Muslim papermaking, dates to 1282.

Rolling mill (15th)

Used on producing metal sheet of even thickness. First used on soft, malleable metals, such as lead, gold and tin. Leonardo da Vinci described rolling mill for wrought iron.

Tidal Mills (16th)

The earliest tide mills were excavated on the Irish coast where watermillers knew and employed the two main waterwheel types: a 6th century tide mill at Killoteran near Waterford was powered by a vertical waterwheel, while the tide changes at Little Island were exploited by a twin-flume horizontal-wheeled mill (c. 630) and a vertical undershot waterwheel alongside it.Another early example is the Nendrum Monastery mill from 787 which is estimated to have developed 7–8 HP at its peak.

Vertical windmills (18s)

Invented in Europe as the pivotable post mill, first surviving mention of one comes from Yorkshire in England in 1185. Efficient at grinding grain or draining water.Later also as the stationary tower mill.

Water hammer (19th latest)

Used in metallurgy on forging the metal blooms from bloomeries and Catalan forges.Replaced manual hammerwork.Eventually superseded by steam hammers in the 19th century.

Printing, paper and reading

Movable type printing press (1440s)

Invented by Johannes Gutenberg. His great innovation was not the printing itself, but instead of using readily-carved plates as before, he used separate letters (types) from which the printing plates for pages were made up. This meant the types were recyclable and a page cast could be made up far faster than with readily-carved plates.

Paper (13th)

Invented in China, transmitted through Islamic Spain to Europe in the 13th century where the papermaking processes were mechanized by water-powered mills and paper presses.

Spectacles (1280s)

European innovation. Florence, Italy. Convex lenses, of help only to the far-sighted. Concave lenses were not developed prior to the 15th century.

Watermark (1282)

Medieval innovation to mark paper products and to discourage counterfeiting.First introduced in Bologna, Italy.

Science and learning

Arabic Numerals (13th c.)

First recorded mention in Europe 976, first widely published in 1202 by Fibonacci with his Liber Abaci.


The first medieval universities were founded between the 11th and 13th century leading to a rise in literacy and learning. By 1500, the institution had spread throughout most of Europe and played a key role in the Scientific Revolution. Today, the educational concept and institution has been globally adopted.

Textile industry and garments

Functional button (13th)

Buttons with buttonholes used to fasten or close garment, being the most convenient method before the introduction of the zipper, appear in the 13th century Germany as indigenous innovation.Became soon widespread with the rise of snug-fitting clothing.

Horizontal loom (11th)

Horizontal and operated by foot-treadles, faster and more efficient.

Silk (6th)

Manufacture of silk began in Eastern Europe in the 6th, in Western Europe in the 11th or 12th centuries. Imported over the Silk Road since antiquity.Technnology of "silk throwing" mastered in Tuscany in the 13th century. The silk works used waterpower and some regard these as the first mechanized textile mills.

Spinning wheel (13th)

Brought to Europe probably from India.


Chess (1450)

The earliest predecessors of the game originated in 6th century AD India and spread via Persia and the Muslim world to Europe. Here the game evolved into its current form in the 15th century .

Forest glass (ca. 1000)

Type of glass which uses wood ash and sand as the main raw materials and is characterised by a variety of greenish-yellow colours.


Rough stone, usually sandstone, used to sharpen iron. The first rotary grindstone (turned with a leveraged handle) occurs in the Utrecht Psalter, illustrated between 816 and 834. According to Hägermann, the pen drawing is a copy of a late antique manuscript. A second crank which was mounted on the other end of the axle is depicted in the Luttrell Psalter from around 1340.

Liquor (12th)

Alcohol distillation by way of Islamic alchemists, initially used as medicinal elixir. Popular remedy for the Black Death during the 14th century; "national" drinks like vodka, gin, brandy come into form.

Magnets (12th)

First reference in the Roman d'Enéas, composed between 1155 and 1160.

Mirrors (1180)

First mention of "glass" mirror in 1180 by Alexander Neckham who said "Take away the lead which is behind the glass and there will be no image of the one looking in."

Quarantine (1377)

Initially a 40-day-period, the Quarantine was introduced by the Republic of Ragusa as measure of disease prevention related to the Black Death. Later adopted by Venice from where the practice spread all around in Europe.

Rat traps (1170s)

First mention of a rat trap in the medieval romance Yvain, the Knight of the Lion by Chrétien de Troyes.

Soap (9th)

Soap came into widespread European use in the 9th century in semi-liquid form, with hard soap perfected by the Arabs in the 12th century.

Gunpowder weapons

Cannon (1324)

Cannons are first recorded in Europe at the siege of Metz in 1324. In 1350 Petrarch wrote "these instruments which discharge balls of metal with most tremendous noise and flashes of fire...were a few years ago very rare and were viewed with greatest astonishment and admiration, but now they are become as common and familiar as any other kinds of arms."

Corned gunpowder (14th, late)

First practiced in Western Europe, corning the black powder allowed for more powerful and faster ignition of cannon.Also facilitated storage and transportation to operational area, thus constituting a crucial step in the evolution of gunpowder warfare.

Supergun (14th, late)

Extant examples include the wrought-iron Pumhart von Steyr, DulleGriet and Mons Meg as well as the cast-bronze FauleMette and Faule Grete (all 15th century).

Longbow with massed, disciplined archery (13th)

Having a high rate of fire and penetration power, the longbow contributed to the eventual demise of the medieval knight class. Used particularly by the English to great effect against the French cavalry during the Hundred Years' War (1337–1453).

Steel crossbow (14th, late)

European innovation.Came with several different cocking aids to enhance draw power, making the weapons also the first hand-held mechanical crossbows.


· 2001

• AbioCor artificial heart invented by Abiomed - the Abiocor represents groundbreaking medical miniaturization technology. Nuvaring birth control invented by Organon.

• Artificial liver invented by Dr. Kenneth Matsumura and Alin Foundation.

• Fuel cell bike invented by Aprilia. • Self-cleaning windows invented by PPG Industries.

• On October 23, 2001 Apple Computers publicly announced their portable music digital player the iPod, created under project codename Dulcimer.

· 2002

• Braille Glove invented by Ryan Patterson.

• Phone tooth invented by James Auger and Jimmy Loizeau.

• Nano-tex - nanotechnology wearable fabrics invented by Nano-tex LLC.

• Birth control patch invented by Ortho McNeil Pharmaceutical. • Foveon Camera Chip invented by Richard Merrill.

• Date Rape Drug Spotter invented by Francisco Guerra.

• Solar Tower invented by JorgSchlaich.

• Virtual keyboard invented by Canesta and VKB.

• ICOPOD invented by Sanford Ponder.

· 2003

•Optical Camouflage System invented by Susumu Tachi, Masahiko Inami, and Naoki Kawakami ,Toyota's Hybrid Car. •Ice Bike invented by Dan Hanebrink

• New Toy Robots Max the robotic cat invented by Omron, LUCKY, THE ROVING ROBO-RAPTOR invented by Walt Disney Imagineering, and Sony builds Aibo a companion called Orio.

•New Fabrics, Salmon Skin Leather invented by Claudia Escobar and Skini, and Luminex a glowing fabric invented by Luminex.

•Java Log a log for your fireplace made from used coffee grinds and invented by Rod Sprules

•Infrared Fever Screening System used in public buildings to scan for people with a high temperature from a fever or sars invented by Singapore Technologies Electronics and the Singapore Defense Science and Technology Agency

•The No-Contact Jacket invented by Adam Whiton and Yolita Nugent, protects the wearer by electric shocking any attackers.

· 2004

• Adidas 1 are the thinking shoes with a built in microprocessor that decides how soft or firm support the wearer needs. Chosen by Popular Science magazine as the best recreation invention of 2004.

• Translucent Concrete developed by Hungarian architect AronLosonczi and called LitraCon and is based on a matrix of parallel optical glass fibers embedded into the concrete that can transmit light and color from the outside. However, this is not the only translucent concrete out there. Inventor Bill Price has been developing another variety.

• Ka-on or Flower Sound are plants that play music invented by the Japanese based Let's Corporation. Flowers bouquets will act as loudspeakers when placed in a special vase that has electronics hidden in the base.

• Intel Express Chipsets - Grantsdale and Alderwood are the code names of Intel's newest chips that will provide superior and inexpensive built-in sound and video capacities for the PC including the ability to do high definition video editing.

· 2005

•YouTube - the online video sharing and viewing community - was invented in 2005 by Steve Chen, Chad Hurley and Jawed Karim. YouTube was named Time Magazines Invention of the year in 2006. Asia-Pacific overtakes US in internet users

· 2006

• smog-earing cement

• high altitude flying windmills

 • bionic contacts

· 2007

• a new computer interface called the sixth sense

• and a retinal implant for the blind.

· 2008

• fabrics made from raw milk

• a new kind of photography

• an electronic bloodhound

• the world's smallest ink jet printer.

· 2009

• a new computer interface called the sixth sense

• a retinal implant for the blind.

· 2010

· AI models used extensively in business management .

· Artificial Nervous System for autonomous robots .

· Highest earning celebrity is synthetic .

· Smart Barbie with personality chip and full sensory input.

· 2011

• fabrics made from raw milk

• a new kind of photography

• an electronic bloodhound

• the world's smallest ink jet printer.

· 2012

Machine use of human-like memorising, recognising, learning.

Artificial senses, sensors directly stimulating nerves.

Purely electronic companies exist - minimal human involvement.

Some of the information can be wrong , but in this hi-tech world where many genius live anything is possible.


Solar flares are disrupting Earth's magnetosphere
The Sun reaches its solar maximum this year - the period of greatest activity in its 11-year solar cycle. Because of the unusually low level of activity in recent years, this has caused a sudden build up of energy, with "solar storms" hitting the Earth's magnetosphere. These are powerful enough to disrupt electronic systems on the ground.
Satellites, air travel, car navigations, the banking system, hospital equipment, computers and many other machines are affected during these storms. There are widespread blackouts.*
The Gaia mission is launched
While the naked human eye can see only a few thousand stars on a clear night, Gaia will map over a billion - approximately 1 percent of all stars within our own Milky Way galaxy - over the course of its five-year mission beginning in 2013. It will chart their brightness and spectral characteristics, as well as their positions and motions, forming a highly detailed three-dimensional map.*
3D technologies are widespread
3D technology is now widespread across a range of communication and entertainment platforms. It has become a mainstream element of cinema, TV, Internet, video games and even mobile. This technology provides users with a whole new level of immersion, interaction and realism.
James Cameron's Avatar, released in 2009, was a major breakthrough in terms of developing this format and raising awareness of its potential.
In 2010, new 3D TV channels were introduced and these could even be viewed without 3D glasses.* This effect was achieved via multiple projectors behind the screen, combined with a lens array creating parallax effects from any direction. Among the TV events during this time was the first ever FIFA World Cup to be screened in 3D.
Compatibility was soon incorporated into a range of consumer products including Blu-ray recorders, games consoles and personal computers. By 2013, the technology has become widespread in homes in developed countries.*
Full-body scanners are mandatory in US airports
In the US, a bill called the S.A.F.E.R. A.I.R. Act has been passed, making full-body scanners mandatory in airports. These devices create a nude image of a person's body through their clothes, in order to look for hidden objects without physically removing their clothes or making physical contact. The use of these machines is controversial, raising privacy issues, as well as concerns over the use of backscatter X-rays.*
Direct high-speed rail from London to Frankfurt and Amsterdam
Two of Europe's biggest financial centres - London and Frankfurt - are now connected by a high-speed rail link. Trains running at 320 kph (200 mph) provide a journey time of under five hours. Combined with cheaper fares and better onboard web access, this offers a genuine alternative to air travel. The service also runs to Brussels, Cologne, Rotterdam and Amsterdam.*
14 nanometre chips enter mass production
The next generation of microprocessor technology is released by Intel, with transistors now based on a 14nm manufacturing process.* For comparison, a carbon atom is 0.34nm wide.* The 4GHz barrier in stock CPU is finally being passed, thanks to the performance and energy efficiency of these new chips.
The first test launch of the Falcon Heavy
The Falcon Heavy - the most powerful rocket since the Saturn V - has its first demonstration flight this year. It is designed to lift satellites or spacecraft into orbit weighing more than 53 tons, or 117,000 pounds - over twice the capacity of the Space Shuttle and Delta IV Heavy launcher. At full power, it has thrust equivalent to fifteen 747's.
The rocket is being developed by SpaceX (Space Exploration Technologies Corporation), one of two private companies that NASA has contracted to transport cargo to the International Space Station.
SpaceX's goals include simultaneously lowering the price of orbital spaceflight and improving reliability, both by a factor of ten, whilst creating the first fully reusable orbital launch vehicle. Longer term, the company intends to design an even more powerful rocket, known as a "super heavy-lift" vehicle. This would have about three times the power of a Falcon Heavy, or about 50 percent more than the Saturn V - enough to carry people to Mars.*
India launches its second lunar exploration mission
Chandrayaan-2 becomes the second lunar probe to be sent by India's space agency. It includes an orbiter as well as two rovers: one lander/rover built by Russia, and a second smaller rover built by India. The wheeled rovers will move on the surface, picking up soil or rock samples for on-site chemical analysis. The data will be sent to Earth through the Chandrayaan-2 orbiter. The team is headed by Dr. Mylswamy Annadurai, who was behind the success of the previous mission (Chandrayaan-1).

The IPCC releases its Fifth Assessment Report
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) releases its Fifth Assessment Report in 2014, which further discusses the possible future impacts of climate change.*
The first two reports were released in 1990 and 1995, respectively. Both of these highlighted the potential rise in global temperature and the long term effects of greenhouse gasses. The second report was particularly strong in clarifying that humans were affecting the climate.
The third report, released in 2001, provided even greater certainty on this, as well as the projected temperatures. Every model presented in the report showed global temperatures and sea levels rising significantly by the end of the 21st century.
The fourth assessment report was released in 2007. This was by far the most alarming to date. New data, along with state-of-the-art computer modelling, showed a global temperature increase as high as 6.4°C (11.5°F) by the end of the 21st century on a "business as usual" scenario. According to the report, a change of this magnitude would be enough to cause a global mass extinction.
The Internet has a greater reach than television
Citizens in developed nations now rely on the Internet more than any other medium for news coverage. This trend* first became apparent in the early 2000s, when radio was overtaken by Internet usage. The rapid shift towards web-based information then began to affect print media, with newspaper sales being heavily impacted.
By 2014, the trend has continued, with even television now having less reach when it comes to news reporting. Television and the Internet are in fact converging together as one. Social media, mobile technologies and exponential bandwidth improvements have driven much of this change.
The first solar aircraft to circumnavigate the globe
Solar Impulse is a Swiss long-range solar powered craft being developed by Bertrand Piccard and André Borschberg. In 2014, it becomes the first piloted fixed-wing plane to circle the Earth using solar power alone.
Solar Impulse has the wingspan of a large airliner, but weighs no more than a saloon car. It uses 12,000 solar cells on its 64-metre wings to charge batteries providing energy for 10-horsepower electric motors driving its propellors. Its average speed is 70kph and it has a maximum altitude of 8,500 metres.*
Personalised DNA sequencing for under $100
DNA sequencing technology is now so fast and cheap that an entire human genome can be read in a matter of hours for less than $100. This has been made possible by a revolutionary new device called a nanofluidic chip.*
Medical treatments can now be delivered on a highly personalised level, tailored to a patient's exact genetic code. For example, a doctor can biopsy a cancer patient's tumor, sequence all of its DNA, and use that information to determine a prognosis and prescribe treatment - all for less than the cost of a chest X-ray.
In the case of lung cancer, the doctor can determine the precise genetic changes in the tumor cells and order the chemotherapy best suited to that variant. Meanwhile, parents of newborns now have the option of determining if their baby is susceptible to conditions like diabetes, and then modifying the baby's diet and medication from day one to reduce the chance of it ever manifesting.
Sony launches the PlayStation 4*
The PS3 is reaching the end of its life cycle. The new console aims to compete with the Xbox 720 and Wii U, which together form the 8th generation of games consoles. Like its predecessor, the PS4 still includes physical media.
Terabyte SD cards are available
SD cards and other memory devices continue to grow exponentially this decade, with storage capacities doubling roughly every year. A terabyte is equal to 1000 gigabytes.
Robotic pack mules are entering military service*
Dynamically stable, quadruped robots are being deployed in military support roles now. These are accompanying soldiers in terrain too difficult for conventional vehicles. They use four legs for movement, allowing them to move across surfaces that would defeat wheels or treads. They are capable of running at 4 miles per hour (6.4 km/h), while carrying loads up to 340 pounds (150 kg) and climbing slopes with 35 degree inclines.*
Locomotion, navigation and balance are controlled by an onboard computer that receives input from the robot's many sensors, which include a stereo vision system, laser gyroscopes, joint position and ground contact monitors.These machines greatly reduce the burden of equipment for soldiers.

Global economic depression
The economic crisis which began in 2007 shows little sign of ending. US debt has continued to spiral out of control, reaching $20 trillion,* and its credit rating has been further downgraded. In an unprecedented move, the dollar is now losing its status as the world's reserve currency, with a basket of currencies in the process of replacing it. America is seemingly paralysed by political deadlock, while the gutting of its social programs has created a dangerously polarised society.*
The contagion affecting the eurozone, initially confined to Greece, eventually spread throughout the continent, leading to the collapse of numerous banks, corporations and financial institutions. Bailout after bailout has failed to provide an adequate long term solution.
Unemployment remains high throughout the West, with extremely weak consumer spending and governments everywhere faced with lower tax revenues. Oil and food prices continue to rise.* Gold and silver have reached unprecedented highs.*This also we can say is the negative side of technology.
Virtual Reality makes a comeback
Despite the economic crisis, technology continues to advance, for now. The exponential growth in computer power has enabled the creation of highly lifelike graphics and 3D environments. At the same time, faster broadband is opening up new frontiers in cyberspace, allowing the development of Web 3.0 - the next generation of Internet. When combined with developments in on-person hardware, this is leading to a rebirth of virtual reality.* Having been something of a gimmick in the 1980s, it is now a serious tool for business, leisure, education and training.
Much of the content in these environments is user-generated, with online communities for sharing and exchanging virtual objects, buildings, avatars, etc. For the wealthy, some of the hardware options now available include pod-like structures which are fully enclosing and respond to a variety of gesture commands.*
A new generation of hi-tech supercarriers
The first in a new generation of US aircraft carriers is launched this year. The Gerald R. Ford-class replaces the aging Nimitz-class which has been in service since 1975. This new class of ship includes some major improvements over previous generations. These include: increased automation, electromagnetic aircraft launch systems to replace previous steam mechanisms, increased stealth, a new type of nuclear reactor for more efficient power consumption, high tech radar and flight control, as well as the ability to carry the new F-35 Lightning II fighter jet. Ten carriers are commissioned in total, at a cost of $14bn each (including research and development). The 10th and final ship is launched by 2040.*
The first large-scale solar updraft towers are completed in 2015.* Built by EnviroMission - a start-up company that purchased land in Arizona, USA - they stand 800 metres in height, over twice as tall as the Empire State Building. Each generates 200 megawatts of clean, renewable energy - enough to serve 150,000 homes - and equivalent to removing 220,000 polluting cars from the roads.*
The towers work by combining three old and proven technologies: the chimney effect, the greenhouse effect, and the wind turbine. Air is heated by the Sun and contained in a very large greenhouse-like structure around the base; the resulting convection causes air to rise up the chimney. This airflow then drives turbines, producing electricity.
The towers have a number of advantages:
Ø Because they work on temperature differential, not absolute temperature, they work in any weather;
Ø Because the heat of the day warms the ground up so much, they continue working at night;
Ø Since large areas of hot, dry land provide the best results, they can be built on useless and uninhabited land in the middle of the desert;
Ø They use no resources such as coal or uranium - just air and sunlight;
Ø They emit zero pollution. The only "emission" is warm air from the top of the tower. In fact, because of the greenhouse underneath, they can also be used for growing vegetation;
Ø They require virtually no maintenance and will last for almost a century;
Ø They can serve as tourist attractions, with money being generated from people wishing to experience their viewing galleries at the top.
3D printing is a mainstream consumer product
Until recently, this technology was extremely expensive - upwards of $15,000 per machine - and limited to use in industrial prototyping, product design, medical modeling and architectural models.* However, plummeting costs are now making it affordable to consumers.**
Rather than using ink on paper, these machines can actually "print" 3D objects. This is achieved by melting nylon powder and then shaping it based on computer instructions.
Countless different items can be produced – from jewellery and decorative giftware, to children's toys, kitchenware, replacement plugs, hooks, pipes, fittings, flooring and other household essentials.
Users can download new items and configurations from the Web.* Artists and hobbyists can even create their own, using these printers in combination with 3D scanners and modeling software.
In addition to falling costs, another reason that home 3D printing has taken off rapidly is that there is very little manufacturing being done in America and various other countries anymore. As a result, there is little or no pressure by manufacturing special interests against it.
10 nanometer chips enter mass production
The next generation of microprocessor technology is released by Intel, with transistors based on a 10 nanometer manufacturing process.* Over 10 billion transistors can now be packed onto a single chip. Moore's Law will soon be hitting a wall, as the effects of quantum tunnelling start to degrade chip performance. Traditional integrated circuits will reach their limit in the early 2020s, with a new paradigm emerging in the form of "stacked" 3D circuits made from carbon nanotubes, graphene and other new materials.

US vehicles are becoming more fuel-efficient
New standards enacted by the Obama administration have boosted the fuel efficiency of light duty vehicles (cars, crossovers, SUVs, vans and pickup trucks) to an average of 34 miles per gallon (MPG).*
This will reduce CO2 emissions by almost 1 billion metric tons and conserve 1.8 billion barrels of oil. In addition, the average buyer is saving around $3,000 over the lifetime of the vehicle - even after the higher initial purchase costs are taken into account.
India's first manned space flight
India becomes only the fourth nation - after Russia, the US and China - to independently launch humans into space. The rocket used is a variant of the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark 2, operated by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). This carries a largely autonomous 3-ton capsule, with a two-person crew on board. They remain in orbit around the Earth at 248 miles (400 km) altitude for seven days, before splashing down in the Bay of Bengal. The total cost of the project is about 124 billion rupees ($2.67 billion USD).*
The first hotel in space
Energiya - a Russian space group - launches the world's first space hotel, in a partnership with Orbital Technologies, a US hi-tech firm. Capable of housing up to seven people, it offers spectacular views of the Earth and includes a menu crafted by celebrity chefs. It can also function as a possible emergency refuge for astronauts from the ISS.
The Juno probe arrives at Jupiter
Launched in 2011, this becomes the second probe to orbit the gas giant, the first being Galileo in 1995. It is equipped with a camera, infrared and microwave radiometers, particle detectors, and an ultraviolet spectrometer. The mission objectives are:
Determine precisely how much water is in Jupiter's atmosphere, to help confirm which planet formation theory is correct (or if new theories are needed).
Look deep into Jupiter's atmosphere to gain a better understanding of its composition, cloud motions, temperature and other properties.
Map Jupiter's magnetic and gravity fields - revealing its deep structure, core mass and overall dynamics, helping to further explain the planet's origin.
Agricultural robots are appearing on farms
The first significant numbers of robots are appearing on farms.* These have been in development for over 20 years and are now cheap and sophisticated enough for mainstream use. New scanning and imaging technology has solved the primary problem of allowing robots to handle the varying shape of individual fruits and vegetables. The on-board computers are now able to differentiate between an object and its shadow and between green fruits, their leaves and vines. This is accomplished using an array of cameras, each picking up a different spectrum of light and creating a perfect picture of the obstacles and topography in the robot's surrounding environment.*
Laser guns are in naval use
First trialled in 2010, laser weapons are now in use by a number of warships as part of their short-range defence. "Solid state" 32-megawatt beams of directed energy can be fired to a distance of more than two miles, hitting a target moving at over 300mph. This exceptionally accurate system can protect against anti-ship missiles, as well as shooting down drones and other flying vehicles.*
A pill to prevent sunburn
In 2011, British researchers who analysed coral samples from the Great Barrier Reef made a remarkable discovery. Algae living within the coral were found to produce a special compound that was transported to the coral, then modified to protect both the algae and the coral from the sun's ultraviolet (UV) rays. Not only that, but fish feeding on the coral were also found to benefit, so it was clearly passed up the food chain.
After establishing how this compound was created and passed on, it was biosynthetically developed in a laboratory, creating a sunscreen for human use. Following tests conducted on skin samples, this is now available in tablet form and provides sun protection for the whole body.

The M1A3 Abrams tank enters the battlefield
The original M1 battle tank - a third generation vehicle - was introduced to the U.S. Army in 1980. Since then, variants of the tank, primarily the M1A1 and M1A2, have seen extensive use in battle. They first entered combat in Operation: Desert Storm, during the Persian Gulf War, and have been used in every American military conflict since. They have also become the principal tank of the Saudi Arabian, Egyptian, Kuwaiti and Australian armies, as well as the Army of Iraq following arms deals made with the United States.
The newest generation of the M1 - the M1A3 - is fielded this year.* The first prototypes were completed in 2014. Now, in 2017, they are entering the battlefield, primarily in the remaining American conflicts in the Middle East (which have dragged on in some areas for longer than expected).*
China launches an unmanned sample return mission to the Moon
Following the success of its first lunar lander in 2013, China attempts a more ambitious sample return mission.* Launched in 2017, this succeeds in obtaining about 2 kg (4 lb) of moon rock and bringing it back to Earth for study.
The robot deployed on the surface has a mission life of three months. It can choose its own routes, avoid obstacles and perform experiments with a mechanical arm. It comes equipped with a suite of sensors including cameras, X-ray and infrared spectrometers and a ground-penetrating radar. It has solar panels and a supplementary power source for night work in the form of a plutonium-238 nuclear battery - the same type of radioisotope thermoelectric generator system (RTG) installed on NASA's Mars Science Laboratory.
China has big plans for beyond 2017. The country intends to build its own space station by 2020,* send humans to the Moon by 2025* and construct a lunar base shortly thereafter.*
Electronic paper is seeing widespread use
This technology has been in development for over a decade* and is now seeing widespread use.* It works by combining organic, thin film transistors (TFT) with organic, electroluminescent displays. This produces flexible, paper-thin devices barely 0.3mm in thickness.
Early applications included the first e-readers, but more sophisticated products have now emerged, some capable of running high-quality video. Ultra-thin smartphones, clothing and textiles with electronic displays, video ID cards, video leaflets, road signs that are self-illuminating, video instructions on food and other packaging - these are just some of the items to feature this technology.
Teleportation of simple molecules
For a number of years, scientists had been teleporting individual atoms and particles of light. By this date, the first molecules such as water and carbon dioxide have been teleported. This will be followed in the 2030s by complex organic molecules such as DNA and proteins.*

The James Webb telescope is launched
The long-awaited successor to the Hubble Space Telescope is launched. Its primary mirror has a collecting area six times larger than Hubble. The telescope is situated in an L2 orbit approximately 1.5 million kilometres from Earth. Originally planned for 2014, it was delayed until 2018 due to budgetary constraints.*
Many complex surgeries are performed by robots
Basic robotic surgeons have been around since the 1990s. In the first decade of the 21st century, they remained uncommon and relatively simple, though high-end companies began to develop their own more advanced models.*
Surgeries were divided between supervisory-controlled systems, telesurgical systems and shared-control systems. Supervisory-controlled systems were the most automated - requiring a human only to input directional data, and to supervise the operation to take control if anything went wrong. Shared-control systems were the least automated, in which human surgeons were physically present and did most of the work, but were aided by robots.
Though yet to become widespread, many large hospitals and universities had their own automated systems in place by 2010. Continued tests and trials of these machines greatly improved their accuracy and reliability. The growing number of successful surgeries made patients more willing to trust in robotic procedures.
Robot insect spies are in military use
These "micro aerial vehicles" - no larger than a common house fly - have been in development for over a decade.* One of the major hurdles was creating sufficient battery power in such a small object, as well as keeping them light enough to remain airborne.
The robots are used in spying missions, where they quite literally serve as a "fly on the wall" - recording and transmitting audio-visual information. An individual robot is equipped with miniature cameras, microphones, modem and GPS. A number of terrorist cells are being infiltrated thanks to this new technology.
Consumer devices with 100 Gbit/s transfer speeds
A new form of data transfer is now available for the consumer market. This is known as "Thunderbolt" and is replacing the Universal Serial Bus (USB) leads which have been the standard for many years. The USB 3.0 specification allowed transfer speeds of 4.8 Gbit/s. An early version of Thunderbolt (codenamed "Light Peak") achieved 10 Gbit/s. This latest version, however, can achieve 100 Gbit/s - enough to transfer an entire Blu-ray movie in just three seconds.*
The optical technology of Thunderbolt also allows smaller connectors with longer, thinner and more flexible cables. Additionally, it can run multiple protocols simultaneously over a single cable, enabling the technology to connect devices such as peripherals, workstations, displays, disk drives, docking stations and more.
Scientists drill into Earth's mantle
The first successful attempt is made to retrieve samples from Earth's mantle - the part of the planet that lies between the crust and the outer core. What was once considered science fiction has now been made possible thanks to advances in drilling technology.*
The operation takes place in the Pacific, where the crust is much thinner, but still requires burrowing through some five miles (eight kilometres) of solid rock. Temperatures range from 500-900°C (932-1,652°F) at the upper boundary with the crust, while pressures exceed 4 million pounds per square foot (21 million kilograms per square meter). Seawater is pumped down into the hole at sufficient pressure that samples can be forced back up to the surface.

China's first high-tech stealth fighter enters service
Entering service this year is the Chengdu J-20 (literally, "Annihilator Twenty"), a fifth generation stealth fighter jet developed for the People's Liberation Army Air Force.* Until now, the United States was the only country to operate a stealth fighter; in its case, the Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor, which is slightly smaller than the J-20.
Though it has slightly less agility and speed than the F-22, the J-20 has a longer range and nevertheless acts as a formidable addition to the Chinese air force. It is built using several Russian components and is believed to be designed using certain Russian plans. Armaments include both long and short range air-to-air missiles together with lateral weapons bays.
The ExoMars rover touches down on Mars
ExoMars is a joint mission between NASA and ESA which is divided into two parts. The first phase of the mission is launched in 2016, arriving in 2017. This consists of an orbiter - ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter - which maps the sources of methane and other gases on Mars, to determine the best location for a rover to investigate. It also contains a static demonstration module that is used to prove the landing site is viable.
Acute spinal injuries are fully treatable
Experiments with mice in the previous decade showed that it was possible to restore function to the spinal cord, using stem cells.* After nine years of clinical trials, the process can now be replicated in humans.*
Bionic eyes are commercially available
Following trials, the world's first bionic eyes are now available for persons with degenerative vision loss.
These devices use miniature cameras, mounted on a pair of glasses. The cameras beam visual information into an electrode array which is connected to neurons in the retina. Electrical impulses are then transmitted through the optic nerve to the vision centres of the brain.
The first prototype of this technology was somewhat crude and pixelated, with only 100 dots of resolution. However, this new version provides 1000 dots, allowing the patient to recognise faces and read large print.*
Connected vehicle technology is being deployed in a number of countries
Many of the world's cars are already linked to the Internet in some way.* By 2019, another layer of technology is being added in the form of wireless connections between vehicles.* Using a combination of Wi-Fi and GPS signals, they are now able to alert drivers to potential hazards or obstructions. For example, if a car two vehicles ahead of the driver brakes, but the car immediately in front does not, this technology warns him/her with a loud beep and flashing red lights on the windshield to hit the brakes.

Ø 2020 - Generation X is reshaping global politics |
Ø Internet use reaches 5 billion worldwide |
Ø The 5G standard is released |
Ø Texting by thinking |
Ø Complex organ replacements grown from stem cells |
Ø Progress with longevity extension |
Ø Ultra High Definition Television (4320p) is available in domestic homes |
Ø Holographic TV is going mainstream |
Ø Africa and the Middle East are linked by a trans-continental bridge |
Ø Hong Kong's Mass Transit Railway (MTR) has been significantly expanded |
Ø Completion of the Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link |
Ø Public smoking is banned across every US state |
Ø Glacier National Park and other regions are becoming ice-free |
Ø BepiColombo arrives in orbit around Mercury |
Ø Video games with truly lifelike CGI |
Ø Smart meters in every UK home

Timeline of transportation technology

Ant i quity

Stone Age – Dugout canoes

3500 BC – Wheeled carts are invented in Mesopotamia

3500 BC – River boats are invented.

3100 BC – Horses are tamed and used for transport BotaiEgypt[citation needed]

2000 BC – Chariots built by Indo-Iranians

6th century BC – Diolkoswagon way is built across the isthmus of Corinth.

500 BC – Postal system developed in Achaemenid Empire (Persian Empire)

332 BC – First documented use of divers or submersibles, during the siege of Syracuse. Alexander the Great, according to medieval legends, used a submersible or diving bell in 332 BC, during the siege of Tire.

312 BC – One of the earliest paved roads, the Appian Way, is built; the Romans eventually built over 50,000 miles of paved Roman roads

236 BC – The date ascribed by Vitruvius for the first documented elevator, which he reports as having been built by Archimedes.

214 BC – Lingqu Canal is built in China.

200 BC – The Kongming lantern, is invented in China.

Middle Ages

800 – The streets of Baghdad are paved with tar

Late 9th century – Kamal invented in India or Arab Empire

1044 – Compass invented in China

13th century (or before) – Rocket invented in China

1350 – Compass dial invented by Ibn al-Shatir.

Late 15th century - European sailing ships become advanced enough to reliably cross oceans.

17th century

1620 – Cornelius Drebbel builds the world's first known submarine, which is propelled by oars (although there are earlier ideas for and depictions of submarines).

1662 – Blaise Pascal invents a horse-drawn public bus which has a regular route, schedule, and fare system

1672 – Ferdinand Verbiest may have built what may have been the first steam powered car.

18th century

1740 – Jacques de Vaucansondebuted his clockwork powered carriage

1769 – Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot demonstrates his fardier à vapeur, an experimental steam-driven artillery tractor

1776 – First submarine to be propelled by screws, and the first military submarine to attempt an attack on a ship, Turtle, is built by David Bushnell. The attack fails to sink the HMS Eagle.

1783 – Joseph Montgolfier and Étienne Montgolfier launch the first hot air balloons

1783 – Jacques Charles and Les Frères Robert (Anne-Jean Robert and Nicolas-Louis Robert) launch the first Hydrogen balloon

1784 – William Murdoch built a working model of a steam carriage in Redruth, England.

19th century

1801 – Richard Trevithick ran a full-sized steam 'road locomotive' on the road in Camborne, England.

1803 – Richard Trevithick built his 10-seater London Steam Carriage.

1803 – William Symington's Charlotte Dundas, generally considered to be the world's first practical steamboat, makes her first voyage.

1804 – Richard Trevithick built a prototype steam-powered railway locomotive.

1804 – Oliver Evans (claimed to have) demonstrated a steam-powered amphibious vehicle.

1807 – Robert Fulton's North River Steamboat, the world's first commercially successful steamboat, makes her maiden voyage.

1807 – NicéphoreNiépce installed his Pyréolophore internal combustion engine in a boat and powered up the river Saone in France.

1807 – Isaac de Rivas made a hydrogen gas powered internal combustion engine and mounted it on a vehicle.

1814 – George Stephenson built the first practical steam-powered railway locomotive

1816 – The most likely originator of the bicycle is the German, Baron Karl von Drais, who rode his 1816 machine while collecting taxes from his tenants.

1819 – SS Savannah, the first vessel to cross the Atlantic Ocean partly under steam power, arrives at Liverpool, England from Savannah, Georgia.

1838 – Isambard Kingdom Brunel's SS Great Western, the first purpose-built transatlantic steamship, inaugurates the first regular transatlantic steamship service.

1852 – Elisha Otis invents the safety elevator.

1853 – Sir George Cayley built and demonstrated the first heavier-than-air aircraft (a glider)

1862 – Étienne Lenoir made a gasoline engine automobile

1867 - first modern motorcycle was invented

1868 – George Westinghouse invented the compressed-air brake for railway trains.

1868 – Louis-Guillaume Perreaux's steam velocipede, a steam engine attached to a Michaux velocipede.

1880 – Werner von Siemens builds first electric elevator.

1894 – Hildebrand &Wolfmüller became the first motorcycle available to the public for purchase.

1896 – Jesse W. Reno builds first escalator at Coney Island, and then reinstalls it on the Manhattan side of the Brooklyn Bridge.

1897 – Charles Parsons' Turbinia, the first vessel to be powered by a steam turbine, makes her debut.

1897 – The most likely first electric bicycle was built in 1897 by Hosea W. Libbey.

20th century

1900 – Ferdinand von Zeppelin builds the first successful airship

1903 - Orville Wright and Wilbur Wright fly the first motor-driven airplane

Diesel engine tested in a canal boat by Rudolph Diesel, Adrian Bochet and Frederic Dyckhoff.

1908 – Henry Ford develops the assembly line method of automobile manufacturing

1911 – Selandia launched, the first ocean-going, diesel engine-driven ship

1912 – Robert Goddard launches the first liquid-fueled rocket

1935 – First flight of the DC-3, one of the most significant transport aircraft in the history of aviation.

1942 – V2 rocket covers a distance of 200 kilometres (120 mi)

1947 – First supersonic manned flight

1955 – The first nuclear powered vessel, the USS Nautilus, a submarine, is launched

1957 -Sputnik 1, the first man-made satellite to be launched into orbit

Gateway City, the world’s first purpose-built container ship, enters service

First flight of the Boeing 707, the first commercially-successful jet airliner

1961 – Vostok 1, the first manned space mission, designed by Sergey Korolyov and KerimKerimov, makes two orbits around the Earth

1969 - First flight of the Boeing 747, the first commercial widebody airliner.

First manned Moon landing

1971 – Salyut 1, the first space station, launched by KerimKerimov

1976 – Concorde makes the world's first commercial passenger-carrying supersonic flight

1981 – First flight of the space shuttle

21st Century

2001 - The Segway PT self balancing personal transport was launched by inventor Dean Kamen

2004 – The first commercial high speed Maglev train starts operation between Shanghai and its airport.

2004 - The first spaceflight of Spaceship One, the first privately funded human spaceflight (21 June 2004).


"A robot is a reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools or specialized devices through variable”

The term "robot" is derived from a Czech word that means forced labor. It was coined by Karel Capek, a playwright that invented fictional robot monsters.

Robot part types

Robots consist of three main components:

- A mechanical device that can interact with surroundings.

- Sensors that provide feedback from environment.

- A system to communicate between the mechanical device and sensory data.

Laws of Robotics

Isaac Asimov, who is considered to be the Father of Robotics, proposed three "Laws of Robotics" in 1942, later adding the Zero Law:

Law 0: A robot may not injure humanity or through inaction, allow humanity to come to harm.

Law 1: A robot may not injure a human being or through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm, unless this would violate a higher order law.

Law 2: A robot must obey orders given to it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with a higher order law.

Law 3: A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with a higher order law.

The term "robot" is derived from a Czech word that means forced labor. It was coined by Karel Capek, a playwright that invented fictional robot monsters.

Robots can be divided into three main categories:

Industrial Robots - These robots are dedicated to performing repetitive manufacturing tasks that are often unsafe or unpleasant for human workers. They are designed to repeat the same process over and over without change. Modern industrial robots can easily be programmed to perform new applications.

Research / Service Robots - These robots are designed to assist in exploring and gathering data. They are often used in space applications, surgeries, and household chores. They are designed to not only interact with the environment, but react appropriately, thus coining the term "artificial intelligence."

Educational Robots - These robots are sometimes considered toys or kits and are designed to provide an educational experience. Educational robots are used in competitions and for learning experience. They often have the ability to simulate learned behavior.

The development of robotics into the consumer market has been expanding in many directions in the last decade. Fueled by some of the same algorithmic technology as computer applications that allow users to download torrent files and customize their mobile devices, modern robotics continues to accelerate. Recently, consumer robotics took another turn and this time it involves kissing.

Artificial intelligence researcher HoomanSamani, who has been exploring a new field known as “Lovotics”, recently released his latest iteration which is called “Kissenger,” a miniature Skype-enabled computer that simulates the feeling of a kiss. The way it works is that a small synthetic pig with a pair of rubber lips is plugged into your company via a USB cord. When you or your partner, on the other end of the line, kiss the lips of Kissenger it will create a second kiss for your significant other. The technology behind Kissenger ranges from the practical to the bizarre, featuring a virtual mouth that simulates the act of kissing and touch sensitive lips that detect trends in kissing patterns.

While this may sound incredibly strange, Samani claims it’s part of an effort to make advanced robotics cater to human relationships and emotions. He thinks inventions like Kissenger will not only make intimacy more convenient for long distance couples, but that they will evolve the relationship between humans and machines. He and Lovotics have also created what they called a “Mini-Surrogate,” which is a doll-shaped robot that simulates a child or pet while also facilitating various telecommunications applications.

These aren’t the only recent dalliances into consumer robotics, or even kissing robots. A Japanese grad student recently created what he calls the “kissing box,” which transmits tongue movements between devices, so that the user can kiss people over the Internet.

Fortunately, not all robotic inventions entail kissing. A slate of new consumer robotics from CES involves more utilitarian functions. Romibo, for example, is a robotics collaboration project that involves crowd sourcing a robot into existence for the purposes of therapy, education and recreation. PerMMA is a personal mobility appliance that uses state of the art technology like robotic arms and teleportation in order to grant people with disabilities more movement and independence. Finally, Myoma is an interactive rehabilitation system for stroke a victim that seeks to combine a person’s own natural biological signals with a proprietary neuro-robotic technology.
As we can see, the field of robotics is running the gamut of innovation, catering to various forms of recreation, emotions, physical needs, and medical applications. At the very least, we can rest assured that no matter how advanced our robotics operations get, they won’t make kissing obsolete any time in the near future.


The era of modernization is viewed in the entire sectors especially in the agriculture sector. Gone are the days when farmers meant a poor man laboring hard to meet his needs. In the modern times, farmers are equipped with agriculture technology that is latest and trouble free. With the entry and increasing influence of the science in the traditional farming, the agriculture industry of the nation is celebrating green revolution each moment. The new technologies have helped in utilizing even the small land into loads of profit making source. Farmers whether small or big are getting more and more aware of the fact that technology is very beneficial to them and the future of the agriculture industry.

The technology has resulted into the many innovative equipments that have reduced time and energy invested in to the farming. The newest tractors are capable of plowing big piece of land at the swiftest speed and less consumption of the fuel. Also, for harvesting there are several new equipments that have reduced man power and burden. Also, agriculture technology has revolutionized the irrigating methodology. Now water is easily distributed to the remotest parts with the tunnels especially in dry and hilly areas. The booming agriculture technology serves with the latest ploughs that are light in weight and superior in quality level. Apart from cropping machines and tools, technology has made farmers to use the weather and conditions in intelligent manner. The witty style of farming reduces the losses in the farming and eliminates dependency over weather for farming. Agriculture technology is based on the scientific researches of experts and botanist who have guided the path to the modernization. Also it is all due to new technologies that are awaking farmers to cultivate new crops like bio diesel apart from the traditional horticulture and crops ultimately making farmers rich. The tardiest pesticides including chemical and organic are result of the upgrading agriculture technology. The agriculture technological enhancements have also compelled the retail sector to join the agriculture sector. In the recent developments, like western countries, in developing nations like India, several MNC and retail tycoons have intruded the trade. They all have been emphasizing on the most advance technologies for agricultural that does well to farmers.

By 9000-7000 BC
In Southwestern Asia, wheat and barley were cultivated, and sheep and goats were domesticated. Dogs had been domesticated in Europe by about 10,000 BC.

Before 7000 BC
Grain agriculture developed in Egypt.

7000-3000 BC
Agriculture developed in parts of the Americas. Domesticated crops included beans, corn (maize), cassavas, squashes, potatoes, and peppers.

6500 BC
Cattle were domesticated in Greece.

6000 BC
The Huang (Yellow) River Valley was an area of early farming in northern China. Millet was a staple crops there. Rice, which may have originated in India, was cultivated throughout much of Asia by 5000 B.C.

About 5500 BC
In Mesopotamia, simple irrigation began and led to increased agricultural production, eventually contributing to the rise of cities.
By 3500 BC
Llamas were domesticated in South America. The animals were used as beasts of burden and as sources of wool and meat in some Andean areas.

3000 BC
The water buffalo was domesticated in India and became an important draft animal.

About 2500 BC
Grain agriculture formed the basis of the Harappan civilization in the Indus River Valley in present-day Pakistan and India.

AD 800
The open-field system of planting was common in western Europe. Village land was divided into two or three large fields, and crops were rotated in each field yearly, with one field left unplanted.

Explorers introduced plants and agricultural products from Asia and the Americas into Europe. Coffee, tea, and indigo were carried back from Asia. Potatoes, tomatoes, corn (maize), and beans were among the plants brought from the Americas. Some of these plants expanded people's diets in parts of Europe.

Early 1700s
New crop rotation methods evolved in Europe's Low Countries and in England, improving previous systems. Charles Townshend popularized a four-field system in Norfolk County, England. He found that turnips could be rotated with wheat, barley, clover, and ryegrass to make soil more fertile and increase yields.

JethroTull introduced the seed drill to English farmers. The device, which cut furrows and dropped in seeds, ended the slow, laborious task of sowing seeds by hand for many people.

Late 1700s
In England, Robert Bakewell pioneered the selective breeding of cattle and sheep to produce meatier animals.

In the United States, Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin, a machine that separated fiber from seed much more quickly than people could do it by hand.

In the United States, the first practical reaper, or grain harvesting machine, was patented by Cyrus McCormick.
In the United States, John Deere patented the steel plow. It was stronger, sharper, and more efficient than wooden or iron plows. Heavy damp soil did not stick to it as readily.

In England, Sir John BennetLawes founded the first factory to manufacture superphosphate. This marked the beginning of the chemical fertilizer industry.

1850s-Early 1900s
Railroad and steamship lines were expanded, opening up new markets. Improved methods of refrigeration and canning made possible the long-distance shipping of perishable agricultural products.

The results of Gregor Mendel's studies in heredity were published in Austria. In experiments with pea plants, Mendel learned how traits were passed from one generation to the next. His work paved the way for improving crops through genetics.

Early 1890s
The first gasoline-powered tractors were built. They gradually replaced steam-powered tractors and draft animals in many parts of the world.

The combine harvester, which combined the cutting and threshing of grain crops, came into widespread use in California. It gradually spread to other western states. The combine reduced the amount of labor needed to harvest one hectare of wheat from 37 to 6.25 man-hours.

Better nutrition, disease control measures, and breeding practices greatly improved livestock production in many countries.

Late 1920s
Scientists improved the seeds from which farmers grew corn. The best qualities of several kinds of seeds were combined. Fertilizers helpted farmers produce more from each plant.

The U.S. Rural Electrification Administration was established. Electricity became more readily available in rural areas.

DDT was introduced, marking the beginning of agriculture's heavy use of chemical pesticides in developing countries. The U.S. banned DDT in 1972 because it was harming the environment.

1945-About 1970
Machines and increased productivity in industrialized countries sharply reduced the number of people working in agriculture. Through scientific advances and improved management techniques, farmers produced more food than ever before.

Several developing countries, such as India and the Philippines, experienced the green revolution. High-yield grains were introduced, greatly increasing production and local supplies.

Researchers in California first spliced a gene from one organism into another, and the age of genetic engineering began. Genetic engineering offers the possibility of making plants and animals hardier, more resistant to disease, and more productive.

Early 1980s
In developed countries, farmers began using computers to keep farm accounts; to monitor crop prices and weather conditions; to help decide when to irrigate and plant; and to automate the application of fertilizers and pesticides.


A social networking service is an online service , platform, or site that focuses on building and reflecting of social networks or social relations among people, who, for example, share interests and/or activities and people with similar or somewhat similar interests, backgrounds and/or activities make their own communities. A social network service consists of a representation of each user (often a profile), his/her social links, and a variety of additional services. Most social network services are web-based and provide means for users to interact over the Internet , such as e-mail and instant messaging . Online community services are sometimes considered as a social network service, though in a broader sense, social network service usually means an individual-centered service whereas online community services are group-centered. Social networking sites allow users to share ideas, activities, events, and interests within their individual networks.


Web-based social networking services make it possible to connect people who share interests and activities across political, economic, and geographic borders. Through e-mail and instant messaging, online communities are created where a gift economy and reciprocal altruism are encouraged through cooperation. Information is particularly suited to gift economy, as information is a nonrival good and can be gifted at practically no cost.

Facebook and other social networking tools are increasingly the object of scholarly research. Scholars in many fields have begun to investigate the impact of social-networking sites, investigating how such sites may play into issues of identity,privacy, social capital, youth culture, and education.


Some social networks have additional features, such as the ability to create groups that share common interests or affiliations, upload or stream live videos, and hold discussions in forums. Geosocial networking co-opts Internet mapping services to organize user participation around geographic features and their attributes.

There is a trend towards more interoperability between social networks led by technologies such as OpenID and OpenSocial. Lately, mobile social networking has become popular.In most mobile communities, mobile phone users can now create their own profiles, make friends, participate in chat rooms, create chat rooms, hold private conversations, share photos and videos, and share blogs by using their mobile phone. Some companies provide wireless services that allow their customers to build their own mobile community and brand it; one of the most popular wireless services for social networking in North America is Facebook Mobile.
Social networks and science

One other use that is being discussed is the use of social networks in the science communities. Julia Porter Liebeskind et al. have published a study on how new biotechnology firms are using social networking sites to share exchanges in scientific knowledge. They state in their study that by sharing information and knowledge with one another, they are able to "increase both their learning and their flexibility in ways that would not be possible within a self-contained hierarchical organization." Social networking is allowing scientific groups to expand their knowledge base and share ideas, and without these new means of communicating their theories might become "isolated and irrelevant".

Social networks and education

Social networks are also being used by teachers and students as a communication tool. Because many students are already using a wide range of social networking sites, teachers have begun to familiarize themselves with this trend and are now using it to their advantage. Teachers and professors are doing everything from creating chat-room forums and groups to extend classroom discussion to posting assignments, tests and quizzes, to assisting with homework outside of the classroom setting. Social networks are also being used to foster teacher-parent communication. These sites make it possible and more convenient for parents to ask questions and voice concerns without having to meet face-to-face. The advent of social networking platforms may also be impacting the way(s) in which learners engage with technology in general. For a number of years, Prensky's (2001) dichotomy of Digital natives and Digital Immigrants has been considered a relatively accurate representation of the ease with which people of different ages—in particular those born before and after 1980—use technology.


Space technology is technology that is related to entering, and retrieving objects or life forms from space. "Every day" technologies such as weather forecasting, remote sensing, GPS systems, satellite television, and some long distance communications systems critically rely on space infrastructure. Of sciences astronomy and Earth sciences (via remote sensing) most notably benefit from space technology.

Computers and telemetry were once leading edge technologies that might have been considered "space technology" because of their criticality to boosters and spacecraft. They existed prior to the Space Race of the Cold War (between the USSR and the USA.) but their development was vastly accelerated to meet the needs of the two major superpowers' space programs. While still used today in spacecraft and missiles, the more prosaic applications such as remote monitoring (via telemetry) of patients, water plants, highway conditions, etc. and the widespread use of computers far surpasses their space applications in quantity and variety of application.

Space is such an alien environment that attempting to work in it requires new techniques and knowledge. New technologies originating with or accelerated by space-related endeavors are often subsequently exploited in other economic activities. This has been widely pointed to as beneficial by space advocates and enthusiasts favoring the investment of public funds in space activities and programs. Political opponents counter that it would be far cheaper to develop specific technologies directly if they are beneficial and scoff at this justification for public expenditures on space-related research.

Time Line of Space Exploration

January 3, 2000 - the Galileo space probe safely completes its encounter with Jupiter's ice moon, Europa, at an altitude of 343 km. Later in the year, on May 30, Galileo flies by Jupiter's largest moon Ganymede at an altitude of 808 km.

February 14, 2000 - NEAR (Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous) probe settles into orbit around the asteroid 433 Eros, producing a series of stunning close-up images. Ground controllers start tightening its orbit for an eventual soft impact with the tumbling, potato-shaped asteroid.

April 4, 2000 - Soyuz TM30 lifts off on a return mission to Mir, reversing Russia's actions of the previous year to shut the space station down. The idea is to re-open the space station for commercial operations, including a Mir version of the Survivor TV show. The cosmonauts remain until mid-June, and two Progress freighters are flown up (one in April, one in October) before financial support disappears and the venture falls through.

May 19, 2000 - Space Shuttle Atlantis lifts off for the International Space Station for maintenance on the crane and a faulty antenna, installation of a Russian boom arm, handrails and upgrades to the ventilation system, and delivery of new batteries, supplies and equipment.

July 12, 2000 - the Zvezda service module for the International Space Station (ISS) is launched from Russia on a Proton rocket. The automated docking of this unit with the first linked pair of modules already in orbit - Zarya and Unity - allows the U.S. to start a series of space shuttle launches to add American-built components, which will be followed by laboratory modules from Europe and Japan. Zvezda will act as the control center and living quarters for the initial space station crews.

December 1, 2000 - Space Shuttle Endeavour lifts off on a 12 day mission to the ISS. They install the first set of ISS's solar panels and radiators for removing heat.



·China launches the second prototype of the manned spacecraft, Shenzhou-2, conducting a successful eight-day mission without crew.


· The Shuttle Atlantis blasted off toward the ISS, carrying the Destiny lab module. The module was attached to the station three days later.

· At the end of its mission, the NASA's NEAR spacecraft touched down on the surface of the asteroid Eros, which the spacecraft was orbiting since previous year.

·The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft is successfully landed on the surface of the asteroid Eros. NEAR sends back unprecedented images of the asteroid's surface during its hour-long descent. NEAR had been in orbit around Eros since February 14, 2000. It was never designed to land on the asteroid. The landing is a last minute idea to get some additional data as the spacecraft as it runs out of fuel and nears the end of its mission.

· U.S. astronauts Thomas Jones and Robert Curbeam Jr. make history as they perform the 100th space walk in the United States space program. The space walk is part of the installation procedure for the new Destiny module of the International Space Station.


·Mir space station is deorbited after 15 years in orbit.

·U.S. Shuttle astronauts Susan Helms and Jim Voss set a new endurance record as they install the Leonardo module aboard the International Space Station. The total time spent in space is 8 hours 56 minutes.


· Delta-2 rocket launches the Mars Odyssey spacecraft.

· Dennis Tito, the first space tourist, blasts off toward the ISS onboard the Soyuz TM-32 spacecraft.



·NASA launched Space Shuttle Columbia to begin the STS-109 mission to service the Hubble Space Telescope by adding new instruments and boosting it to a higher orbit.


·During Space Shuttle's STS-110 mission to the ISS, NASA astronaut Jerry Ross logs record nine spacewalks after several missions with the total EVA time of 58 hours 18 minutes.


·Russia introduces the Soyuz TMA spacecraft, launching a taxi crew to the ISS, which included an ESA researcher from Belgium.


· China launches Shenzhou-4, the fourth and last prototype of the manned spacecraft, on a successful six-day mission without crew.



·Shuttle Columbia disintegrates on re-entry into the Earth atmosphere, killing seven crew members.


·In the wake of the Columbia tragedy, Russia takes over the responsibility of rotating crews onboard the ISS, using Soyuz TMA spacecraft.


·Japan's M-5 rocket launches MUSES-C (Hayabusa) spacecraft to return samples from asteroid 25143 Itokawa.


·The Russian Soyuz FG/Fregat booster launched Mars Express probe, Europe's first spacecraft to explore the Red Planet.

·NASA launched two rovers to Mars.


· A Brazilian VLS-1 launch vehicle explodes on the launch pad, killing 21 people.


·China becomes the third nation to conduct manned space flight, launching the Shenzhou-5 spacecraft, with a 38-year-old Lt. Colonel Yang Liweionboard.


· The 6th launch of the Japan's H-2A booster, carrying two reconnaissance satellites, ended in failure, when one of two booster stages failed to separate around 10 minutes after the blastoff.



· Japan's Nozomi spacecraft was to enter orbit around Mars. (The mission was abandoned in 2003, due to technical problems onboard the vehicle).

·The Stardust spacecraft flies by comet Wild 2, collecting samples.

·The Spirit rover (MER-A) lands on Mars.

·President George W. Bush announced a new space initiative, envisioning the return of American astronauts to the Moon.

·NASA cancels upgrade and servicing of Hubble Space Telescope (The Decision later reversed).

· The MER-2 Opportunity rover lands on Mars.


·Russia conducts a massive military exercise dubbed Security 2004.


· Ariane-5G launches the Rosetta spacecraft toward Churyumov-Gerasimenko comet.

·Members of the Mars Exploration Rovers' international science team announce that the outcrop near the site where Opportunity landed holds evidence that the rocks have spent time drenched in liquid water.

·NASA's second X-43A hypersonic research aircraft flew successfully after being dropped in mid-air by NASA'a B-52 and boosted by Pegasus rocket. For the first time, an aircraft powered by an air-breathing scramjet has flown freely. The unmanned vehicle's supersonic combustion ramjet, or scramjet, ignited as planned and operated for the duration of its hydrogen fuel supply, which lasted about 10 seconds. The X-43A reached its test speed of Mach 7.


·The Cassini spacecraft enters orbit around Saturn.

·Spaceship 1 claims the $10 million X PRIZE e by making its second trip into space within two weeks. On this flight, civilian astronaut Brian Binnie pilots the craft to an altitude of 367,442 feet (112 kilometres), far surpassing the 100-kilometer (62.5-miles) altitude required to win the X PRIZE. The flight also breaks the altitude record for an airplane, set by X-15 pilot Walker in 1963. The Spaceship One team hopes to license their technology for use in future commercial space flights.


·Delta II launches NASA Messenger spacecraft toward Mercury.

· The privately developed spacecraft, Spaceship One, makes its first attempt to claim the X PRIZE as Mike Melvill pilots the craft to an altitude of 337,500 feet (63.9 miles or 102.9 kilometres). The team hopes to win the Ansari X PRIZE by making another trip into space within two weeks.


·NASA's X-43A scramjet-powered research vehicle reaches speeds of Mach 9.8, or 7,000 mph, as it flies at the altitude of about 33 kilometres, following a mid-air launch from B-52B aircraft onboard the Pegasus rocket booster. The mission concluded the program, discontinuing the development of scramjet technology at NASA.


· Boeing's Delta-4 Heavy rocket leaves its experimental payload on a lower than expected orbit during its first test mission from Cape Canaveral. Two university-built nanosats are lost in a mishap.

·After a journey of nearly seven years, the Cassini probe arrives at the planet Saturn, where it will spend four years photographing the ringed planet and its many moons for. Cassini carries with it another small probe called Huygens that will later be sent to land on Saturn's largest moon, Titan. Huygens will attempt to send back to Earth the first images of the surface of Titan



·Delta II launches Deep Impact probe toward Comet Tempel 1.

· The Huygens probe from the Cassini spacecraft successfully lands on the surface of Saturn's moon Titan and transmits imagery during the descent and from the surface.


· After a two-day delay, NASA launches the Mars Reconnaissance Obiter, MRO, spacecraft.

·After a journey of 174 days, the Deep Impact space probe fulfils its mission by slamming into a comet known as Tempel 1. The probe impacts the comet at a speed of 10.3 kilometres (6.3 miles) per second. The probe's mother ship photographed the impact and analyzed the resulting debris. Among the many discoveries was water ice within the comet.

·The space shuttle Discovery launches from the Kennedy space centre, marking the shuttle's return to flight two and a half years after the Columbia disaster. The flight is not entirely successful, however. Cameras on the obiter record a piece of foam breaking off from the fuel tank during launch, sparking fears of another Columbia-style accident. NASA again grounds the shuttle fleet until the liquid fuel tank can be redesigned.


· Japan's Hayabusa (MUSES-C) arrives at the target asteroid Itokawa. (previously expected in July)

·NASA unveiled launch vehicle and spacecraft architecture designed to establish a base on the Moon and support expeditions to Mars.


·The Spaceship One rocket-powered plane conducted two flights to the altitude of 100-kilometers, winning a 10-million X-Prize for its creators.

·China launched a crew of two on a five-day Shenzhou-6 orbital mission. (Set in December 2004, originally expected in September)

·NASA announced it is unofficially targeting a May 3-23, 2006, period, as the next launch date for the Space Shuttle. As of August. 18, 2005, the return to flight was expected on March 4, 2006.


· A Russian launcher to send ESA's Venus Express toward Venus.

· Japan's MUSES-C (Hayabusa) spacecraft takes samples from asteroid Itokawa.


·NASA issued a solicitation for proposals to the private industry to deliver cargo to the ISS, after Shuttle retires in 2010.

·Soyuz rocket launched the first pair of experimental satellites for the European Galileo navigation network. (Set: March 3, 2004)



·The Stardust spacecraft returns to Earth.

·The Atlas V launches the New Horizons spacecraft toward Pluto.

· First Comet Samples Returned to Earth


·Mars Reconnaissance Obiter enters orbit around Mars.


·Shuttle Discovery returns to flight, re-supplies the ISS, during the STS-121 mission. (As of October. 14, 2005, the launch was targeted for May 3-23, 2006; Weather delayed mission from July 1 and 2).


·NASA's Messenger spacecraft to conduct the first flyby of Venus.


·ESA's SMART-1 lunar obiter ends its mission with a pre-programmed crash into the surface of the Moon.


·The Goddard development vehicle the Blue Origin Company climbs to the altitude of around 90 meters and lands softly after a 25 seconds in flight over test site in El Paso, Texas.


·Soyuz-2-1b vehicle with the new RD-0124 engine to fly its first test mission from Baikonur, launching the Corot satellite intended to detect planets outside the Solar System.



· European Rosetta spacecraft to fly by Mars.

· New Horizons spacecraft conducted a flyby of Jupiter.


· NASA's Messenger spacecraft conducted its second flyby of Venus.

· Japan's MUSES-C (Hayabusa) spacecraft was to land in Woomera, Australia, with soil samples of an asteroid. (In 2005, delayed to June 2010)


·Delta 2 rocket launched NASA's Scout (Phoenix) mission to Mars.


·Japan's H-IIA launched the SELENE (Kaguya) obiter toward the Moon. (Delayed from August 2007)

·NASA to launch Dawn spacecraft on a mission to visit two asteroids. (Delayed from June 2007)


·China launched lunar orbiting spacecraft Chang'e-1 to orbit the Moon for at least 12 months. (Set: February 2004, confirmed in 2005)


· The European Rosetta spacecraft conducted second flyby of Earth.

Delayed from 2005

· Japan to launch Lunar-Aobiter with two penetrators to drill three meters into the lunar regolith. (In 2004, delayed from August 2004)


·NASA's Messenger probe conducts its first flyby of Mercury; nearly 33 years after the last spacecraft encountered the planet.


·The European Ariane-5 rocket launched Europe's first ATV cargo ship to the ISS from Kourou. (Delayed from 2004, January and second half of February 2008)

·Cassini encounters Saturn's Moon Escalades for the last time during its nominal flight program.


·NASA's Phoenix probe landed in a polar region of Mars. (Delayed from May 18)


· ESA's Rosetta passed within 800 kilometres from asteroid 2867 Steins.

·The Shenzhou-7's crew member -- ZhaiZhigang -- conducted China's first spacewalk. (The Shenzhou-7 mission was delayed from 2007.)

·NASA to conduct the first test of the launch escape system for the Orion spacecraft, imitating the failure on the launch pad.


· Delayed from September 10: NASA to launch the Space Shuttle Atlantis, whose crew is slated to service Hubble Space Telescope for the fourth and last time before the retirement of the instrument around 2013 (ESA announcement on June 8, 2007).

·NASA's Messenger spacecraft to conduct its second flyby of Mercury.

·India launched a 590-kilogram Chandrayaan-1 lunar mapping satellite and a 20-kilogram impactor on the lunar surface. (Delayed from September. 19, 2007). It entered lunar orbit on November. 7 and an impactor crashed into the Moon as planned on November. 15.



·Iran orbited its first satellite, Omid, with a domestically-built launch vehicle, Safir, becoming the 8th member of the "space club." (In January 2004, Defense Minister promised the launch in 2005.)


·China's Change lunar obiter impacted the Moon's surface at 1.5 degrees South latitude and 52.36 degrees East longitude. A planned breaking manoeuvre was initiated at 03:36 Beijing Time by ground control stations in East Qingdao and northwest Kashi regions of China.

·NASA launches the Kepler satellite designed to search Earth-size and smaller planets beyond the Solar System. (The mission was previously planned for fall 2008 and February.

·NASA's Space Shuttle Discovery flies the STS-119 mission, attaching the fourth and last solar array segment to the US segment of the International Space Station.

·The Kepler spacecraft launches on a mission to search for planets outside our solar system. This first-of-its-kind spacecraft uses a technique known as the "transit" method to search for planets orbiting distant stars. As a planet moves in front of the star's disk, the light from the star dims ever so slightly and in a regular cycle. Kepler can detect these cycles to detect a planet and also to approximate its size and orbit.


·North Korea fires a long-range rocket officially carrying the nation's second satellite, however it fails to reach orbit.


·The crew of the Space Shuttle Atlantis conducts fourth and last servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope during the STS-125 mission.

·The European Space Agency's Ariane-5 ECA rocket successfully launches Herschel and Planck space telescopes.


·NASA launches Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, LRO, and Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite, LCROSS, spacecraft into orbit around the Moon for at least a year-long mission. LCROSS, spacecraft to impact lunar surface in the effort to detect presence of water on the Moon. (As of March 2009. As of 2004, the mission was planned for 2008; confirmed as of mid-2007; Delayed from October. 28, 2008, May 20 and June 17, 2009)


·NASA's Messenger spacecraft conducts its third flyby of Mercury.


· NASA test-flies a launch vehicle (Ares I-X) for the Orion spacecraft on a sub-orbital trajectory. (The mission met the March 2009 schedule. Delayed by one day by weather). As of June 2006, October. 2007, January. 2008, the mission was planned in April 2009. Delayed from July 11 and late August 2009. By the time of the first launch, the use of the booster was essentially ruled out and its development was officially cancelled at the beginning of 2010.)


·The European Rosetta spacecraft flies by Earth for the third and last time.


·China conducted launch of a target missile and the anti-missile interceptor, achieving an apparently successful intercept.


· The White House made a proposal to eliminate funding for the Constellation program.


· Space Shuttle delivered the MIM1 Rassvet module to the ISS.

·Japan launches Akatsuki (Planet-C) orbiter and the IKAROS solar-sailing probe toward Venus.


·Japan's MUSES-C (Hayabusa) spacecraft landed in Woomera, Australia, possibly with soil samples of an asteroid. (As of April 2007)


·European Rosetta spacecraft flew at the distance of 3,126 kilometres from asteroid (21) Lutetia. Images confirmed that the asteroid has an elongated body, with its longest side around 130 kilometres.

·NASA's Dawn spacecraft to enter orbit around asteroid Vesta. (Delayed to 2011, then postponed indefinitely in the fall of 2005 due to cost overruns. The project later revived.)


·China launched Chang'e-2 into a 100-kilometer orbit around the Moon to prepare for future lunar landing. (As of May 2009. In March 2009 it was reported to fly in 2011.)


· NASA's Deep Impact probe flew by comet Hartley 2.


·Japan's Akatsuki (Planet-C) orbiter and the IKAROS solar-sailing probe arrived into vicinity of Venus, however Akatsuki failed to enter Venusians orbit.

· A company called SpaceX becomes the first private company to launch a spacecraft to orbit and return it safely to the Earth. The US Falcon 9 rocket launched from Cape Canaveral with an unmanned prototype of the Dragon spacecraft, both developed under a NASA contract by SpaceX. Three hours, 19 minutes, 52 seconds after a liftoff, Dragon successfully splashed down in the Pacific Ocean, some 800 kilometres west of Mexican coast.

·NASA to conduct the first J-2X engine test for Ares I and Ares V rockets at a just completed stand at the Stennis Space Centre. (As of May 8, 2007.)

·Space Shuttle to fly its last mission. (Date set on January. 14, 2004, later delayed to 2011).

· US to test orbital missile interceptors (as of January 2004, later cancelled.

·NASA to land a probe on the surface of the Moon. (In February 20004, the mission was described as a soil return from the polar regions of the Moon in 2009. At the end of 2004, it was delayed to 2010 and October 2005, it was classified as a lander. During 2007, under threat of cancellation.)

· Russia to launch a modified Soyuz, capable of circumlunar missions. (An April 2007 RKK Energia estimate; the project had not been funded at the time.)

· The Blue Origin company to start ferrying commercial passengers into the upper atmosphere onboard the New Sheppard spacecraft.



·NASA's Stardust spacecraft to fly by a 2.99-kilometer potato-shaped comet Tempel 1.

· March

· NASA's Messenger spacecraft becomes the first man made craft to orbit the closest planet to the Sun. The Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft begins its mission to map and photograph the planet's surface in high resolution. It will also study the planet's thin atmosphere and search for signs of water that could lie frozen beneath the surface.


· NASA planned to launch JIMO spacecraft to orbit Jupiter and its satellites. (Effectively cancelled in 2005)


·European Rosetta spacecraft to enter a hibernation mode as it chases the comet.


·First Spacecraft to Orbit an Asteroid

· NASA's Dawn spacecraft was to leave orbit of Vesta and enter cruising trajectory toward asteroid Ceres. (later re-scheduled)

· NASA's Dawn spacecraft enters orbit around asteroid Vesta.

· A Zenit-2/Fregat-SB rocket launches the Spectra-R/Radioastron astrophysics observatory from Baikonur.


· NASA launched the Juno mission to orbit Jupiter. (Delayed from June 30, 2010 to 2011)


· Delta 2 launches twin the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory, spacecraft (GRAIL A and B) to go into orbit around the Moon to measure its gravity field in unprecedented detail, possibly along with small lunar atmosphere research satellite.

· China launches the Tiangong-1 space station. As of December 2010, China's unmanned Shenzhou-8 spacecraft was to dock with the Tiangong-1 space station in August 2011. (443) In March 2009, the mission was expected at the beginning of 2011. As of 2008, China planned to launch Tiangong-1, 2, 3 space stations from the end of 2010 to 2015, to be visited by five manned spacecraft. Tiangong-1, 2 and 3 were promised to be 8.5-ton space laboratories. In March 2010, Chinese space officials said that technical problems forced to delay the launch of Tiangong-1 station from 2010 to 2011. In January 2011, Chinese media reported that the launch of Tiangong-1 had to be delayed from the beginning of 2011 to the second half of that year.)


· The Russian Soyuz-2 rocket flew its first mission from Kourou, French Guiana. (In February 2006, the launch was expected in November 2008; During 2007, the first launch was expected in March 2009; in March 2008, it was expected in June 2009, by the end of 2008, it slipped to the end of 2009 - beginning of 2010; during 2009 it was delayed to April-June 2010 and at the beginning of 2010 slipped to the last quarter of 2010. By spring 2011, the launch was expected in the fall of that year.)


· A Zenit rocket launches the Phobos-Grunt spacecraft to study Mars and its moon Phobos and return soil samples from Phobos to Earth. The spacecraft fails immediately after entering the Earth orbit.

· A 400-meter asteroid 2005 YU55 passes within 324,600 kilometres from Earth, enabling NASA to produce radar images of its surface.

·NASA launches Mars Smart Lander/Mobile Laboratory (Mars Science Laboratory/Curiosity) (At the end of 2008, the launch was postponed from September 2009 to October-December2011. By May 2010, continuing analysis of the geometry and communications options for the arrival at Mars have led planners to choose an Earth-to-Mars trajectory that schedules launch between November. 25 and December. 18, 2011).


·NASA's GRAIL A spacecraft entered lunar orbit.



·NASA's GRAIL B spacecraft entered lunar orbit.

· A stranded Phobos-Grunt spacecraft re-enters the Earth atmosphere.

· An 11-meter asteroid 2012 BX34 passes within 60,000 kilometres from Earth.


·NASA to conduct a second test launch of a launch vehicle (Ares I) for the Crew Exploration Vehicle, (Orion) spacecraft. (As of June 2006; the program cancelled at the beginning of 2010.)


·The last chance for a private company to claim a $20-million prize of the X-Prize Foundation for soft-landing a rover on the Moon, capable of moving and relaying images to Earth. (Set in September 2007)

· NASA to launch Space Technology 9 satellite to test new systems for future missions. (As of 2007)

· Japan to send a lander on the surface of the Moon. (A September. 2007 statement by Manabu Kato, chief scientist of the Kaguya project)

·NASA to launch "human precursor missions" to Mars. (2004, later delayed?)

·NASA to launch Soil Moisture Active-Passive remote-sensing satellite into the Earth orbit. (A 2009 budget proposal)

· US and UK to launch one of two Moon orbiters within the Magnolia project. (As of end of 2007. In August 2007, the mission was promised in 2010)

· China's Shenzhou-9 spacecraft to dock with the Tiangong-1 space station. (As of 2010)

· China and France was to launch Small Explorer for Solar Eruptions to observe solar maximum (according to a science development plan released in March 2007, the launch was expected in 2011.)



· NASA's Minotaur V rocket to send Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer, LADEE, into the lunar orbit. (As of July 2010. The original launch date - May 1, 2012.)


· Taurus XL 3110 rocket to launch NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California to replace OCO-1 satellite lost in a 2009 launch mishap.

Early 2013

· NASA to launch LISA Pathfinder/ST-7 spacecraft to validate drag-free spacecraft operation. As of November2010. Original plans called for Delta IV rocket to launch in 2010 a trio of Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, LISA, spacecraft to observe gravitational waves from binary stars both inside and beyond our galaxy, including gravitational waves generated in the vicinity of the very massive black holes. Spacecraft will form an equilateral triangle in orbit. The mission was then delayed to 2012 and 2013.

First quarter

· A Russian rocket to launch the Spektr-RG X-ray observatory from Baikonur. (As of December2010. In 2004, the launch was expected in 2009.)


· NASA Juno spacecraft to fly by Earth on its way to Jupiter (As of 2007).


·NASA's Atlas 5-401 rocket to launch Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) probe to gather information about the Red Planet's atmosphere, climate history and potential habitability in greater detail than ever before. (As of September 2008)


·A Delta-4 rocket to launch NASA's Orion (Block I) spacecraft into an Orbital Flight Test (OFT-1) without crew. (As of 2011).

· India to send an unmanned mission to Mars. (a 2006 ISRO proposal; In 2009, after an ISRO call for proposals, it was promised in 2013-2015)

· German Space Agency, DLR, to launch a $658-million remote-sensing and cartography spacecraft into the lunar orbit. (The end of February 2007 DLR proposal to German government)

· NASA to retire Hubble Space Telescope, HST.

·China's Long-March-3B rocket to launch Chang'e-3 lunar lander. A second vehicle, Chang'e-4, was expected to back up the mission as of 2010. (As of March 2009. As of February. 25, 2004, the unmanned lander mission was expected in 2010, the rover mission in 2012. In May 2009, Ye Peijian, a chief scientist of the Change project said that Chang'e-3 would carry a rover).

· China to launch a Mars orbiter. (A proposed mission as of 2010.)

· NASA to launch a Scout mission to study atmosphere of Mars. (In December2007 delayed from 2011, due to "organizational conflict.")

· India to launch a Chandrayaan-2 lunar orbiter, carrying a Russian lander and an Indian rover. (As of 2010. In 2007, the launch was promised in 2011; in 2009, a delay to 2012-2015 was considered likely.)

·China's Shenzhou-9 spacecraft to dock with the Tiangong-1 space station. (As of 2010)

· Russian Proton rocket to launch FGB-2 multi-purpose module to the International Space Station, ISS. (As of 2012. As of 2009, the mission was expected in 2012. In 2006 the mission was expected in 2010; in 2004, it was expected as early as 2007.)


Early 2014

· NASA to launch the first unmanned version of the Orion spacecraft (as of November2011).

· NASA to launch Joint Dark Energy Mission, JDEM, in cooperation with Department of Energy. (The 2009 budget proposal)

· ATK and Astrium to conduct a test launch of the Liberty launch vehicle for NASA's Commercial Crew Development program. (As of September. 13, 2011)


· European Rosetta spacecraft to end its hibernation period, as it chases the comet.


· NASA's Dawn spacecraft to enter orbit around Ceres. (Delayed to 2015, then postponed indefinitely in the fall of 2005 due to cost overruns)

· European Rosetta spacecraft to enter orbit around comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko.

·NASA's MAVEN spacecraft to enter orbit around Mars.


· The Rosetta spacecraft to drop Philae lander on the surface of comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko.


· The last chance for a private company to claim a $15-million prize of the X-Prize Foundation for soft-landing a rover on the Moon, capable of moving and relying images to Earth. (Set in September 2007)

2014 the earliest

· Japan to launch Hayabusa-2 spacecraft on a mission to a carbon-rich asteroid. (As of August 2010 budget proposal, formally approved in January 2012.)

2014 the earliest

· US to launch the Next Gen NEAR mission aiming to land on an asteroid. (An unfunded proposal circa 2010).

·Bigelow and Boeing companies to start assembling a 690-cubic-meter space station in the Earth orbit. (A July 2010 announcement.)

·NASA to launch a visible-light coronagraph to search for planets outside Solar System. (2004)

·NASA to send three small landers on the surface of the Moon. (The 2009 budget proposal)

·Russia to launch the Luna-Glob spacecraft toward the Moon. (As of 2011. In November. 2007, the mission was promised in 2010; in 2006, the mission was not expected before 2012.)



· First manned launch of NASA's Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (into the low Earth orbit) (Date as of March 2007. From January 2004 to August. 30, 2006, the mission was expected as early as September 2014. The project officially cancelled on February. 1, 2010).


· NASA to launch a Solar Probe Plus, which would fly closer to the Sun than any other spacecraft. (Funded as of 2008, by 2011, the launch date slipped to 2017.)


· New orisons spacecraft to fly by Pluto and its moon Charon.

·NASA's Solar Probe Plus to conduct a flyby of Venus.

· July End of primary mission for NASA's Dawn spacecraft. (Postponed indefinitely in the fall of 2005 due to cost overruns; then restarted)


· Europe's Ariane-5 rocket to launch the 2,300-kilogram BepiColombo probe toward Mercury from Kourou. (As February 2012. In February 2006, the launch was planned in August 2013; previously planned for 2011 and 2012. A Soyuz-2-1B rocket was previously scheduled to launch the mission. In August 2009, the mission was delayed to August 2014.)


· The Rosetta spacecraft to end its mission as Churyumov-Gerasimenko comet flies past Jupiter.

·The earliest date for NASA to resume manned exploration of the Moon. (Date set on January. 14, 2004)


·China to inaugurate its fourth and southernmost launch facility in Wenchang, Hainan island. (As of 2010. Original plans called for the completion of the centre in 2013.)

Not before 2015

· NASA to launch JIMO spacecraft to orbit three planet-sized moons of Jupiter -- Callisto, Ganymede and Europa. (In January 2005, the mission was cut from NASA's 2006 budget)

Around 2015

· A "tugboat" spacecraft conceived by B612 Foundation to demonstrate the possibility of flying to a near-Earth asteroid, docking with it and gently altering its speed enough to change its orbit and avoid catastrophic collision with Earth. (As of 2005)

· ATK and Astrium's Liberty launch vehicle to carry the first crew during the third test launch. (As of September. 13, 2011)

·Russia to test launch Rus-M rocket. (As of November2004, it was the date for the introduction of the Kliper spacecraft. In February 2004, the first launch was expected as early as 2010. The program was frozen in June 2006 and the first launch estimate was pushed from 2012 to 2015. At the MAKS 2007 air and space show, the same date (2015) was quoted as the completion of development of the Advanced Crew Transportation System, ACTS).

·NASA to launch ICESat 2 remote-sensing satellite into the Earth orbit to study rate of ice loss on Earth. (A 2009 budget proposal)

·China to launch a Venus orbiter. (As of 2010.)



· A Proton rocket to launch a European orbiter and an Entry, Descent and Landing Demonstrator Module, EDM to arrive to Mars in nine months (October 2016). A small ESA lander to survive on the surface for around eight sols (Martian days) using only battery power and doing limited science. (As of December2009, the launch was considered on an Atlas V 421 rocket. As of July 2009, a US lander was considered for this mission.)

· NASA to launch Titan Mare Explorer (Time), a Discovery-class lander to the surface of the Ligeia Mare lake on the Saturnian moon Titan. (A 2009 unfunded proposal.)


· NASA to launch the OSIRIS-Rex asteroid sample return mission, delivering as much as two kilograms of samples. According to a 2006 proposal within the Discovery Program, the launch would take place as early as 2011, rendezvous with an asteroid 1999 RQ36 in 2013 and return in 2017.


· NASA's Solar Probe Plus to conduct a flyby of Venus.

· NASA's Juno spacecraft to enter orbit around Jupiter (As of 2007).

·NASA to launch Insight spacecraft to Mars. (As of November2011, it was one of three competing proposals).

· Japan's Akatsuki (Planet-C) spacecraft has a second opportunity to enter orbit of Venus following a failed attempt in 2010. (As of 2010)

· NASA funding for the ISS program to end. (As of January. 14, 2004; In 2010, funding extended to around 2020)

· NASA to launch nuclear-powered, ion-propelled spacecraft toward Neptune system. (A 2005 proposal within NASA Vision Mission)

· Europe to launch a mission to return soil samples from Martian moon Phobos to Earth. (British and French proposals circa February 2007)

· India to launch its first manned mission into the Earth orbit, carried by the launch vehicle derived from the GSLV rocket. The spacecraft was expected to be based on Soyuz. (As of end of 2009. In 2008, the first Indian manned launch was expected in 2015.)


· China to launch the Tiangong-3 space station.



·NASA's Solar Probe Plus to conduct a flyby of Venus.


· NASA to launch SAFIR, a super cooled far-infrared telescope. (Set: June 2004)


· NASA's Solar Probe Plus to conduct a flyby of Venus.

End of year

·NASA to conduct the first unmanned test flight of the Space Launch System, SLS, capable of carrying 77 tons into the low Earth orbit with a potential for upgrades to 130 tons of payload. (The mission was announced on September. 14, 2011.)


·ESA to launch electrically powered Solar Orbiter to fly within 40 solar radii in a 150-day orbit following multiple flybys of Earth and Venus.

· NASA "flagship mission" to be launched into the outer Solar System, possibly toward Jupiter-Europa or Saturn-Titan systems. (A 2009 initial budget proposal)

·China's Chang'e-5 and Chang'e-6 probes to return two kilograms of soil samples from the surface of the Moon and prepare for possible manned expedition. (The mission first announced in August 2005 and later confirmed in 2010 and 2011.)

·NASA to test-fly a heavy-lifting launch vehicle on a deep-space trajectory carrying an unmanned prototype of the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, MPCV. (A mid-2011 estimate by NASA Administrator Charles Bolden).

· Europe's retrievable cargo ship to fly its first mission capable of returning cargo from space. (A provisional date based on the projected funding in November2008, which did not materialize.)



· NASA's Atlas rocket to launch European Space Agency's ExoMars rover and a smaller NASA rover (Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher, MAX-C) to look for signs of life on Mars. (As of July 2009. In 2005, ExoMars was delayed from 2009 to 2011. Around 2006, the project was increased in scope but delayed from 2011 to 2013 and switched from Soyuz-2-1B to Ariane-5 or Proton. In October 2008, it was delayed from November2013 to January-February 2016. In July 2009, delayed from 2016 to 2018, switched from Ariane-5 to US Atlas.)

Middle of 2018 

· Japan's Hayabusa-2 spacecraft land and collect samples from a carbon-rich 1999 JU3, a C-type asteroid with a diameter of about one kilometre. (As of August 2010 budget proposal)


· NASA's Solar Probe Plus to conduct a flyby of Venus.


· NASA to launch James Webb Space Telescope, JWST, into the L2 lagrangian point between Earth and Sun. (As of January 2012. As of fall of 2010, the launch was projected for September 2015. In April 2007, the launch was expected in 2013. In August 2009, the launch was expected in June 2014.)

· Japan to send a lander (with a soil sample return mission?) on the surface of the Moon. (A September. 2007 statement by Manabu Kato, chief scientist of the Kaguya project)

·NASA to launch Mars Field Lab, Mars Tele set Orbiter and Mars Scouts probes (As of 2007)

·Russia to launch Luna-Resurs mission. (As of 2008)

· The Soyuz-2-1B rocket with Fregat upper stage to launch a 700-800 unmanned lander to the South Pole of the Moon from Kourou. (The project to be approved in 2012.) (As of March 2009, a prototype of a cargo-carrying lunar mission, which could eventually resupply a lunar base, was expected to fly around the same time frame on the Ariane-5 rocket.)

· NASA to launch an unmanned lunar lander for the International Lunar Network, ILN. (As of 2009)

End of 2018

· NASA to launch a New Frontiers mission. (As of end of 2009, Venus SAGE, Osiris-Rex asteroid sample return and lunar sample return missions competed for funding. A winner was to be announced in mid-2011. On May 25, 2011, Osiris-Rex was declared a winner with the launch in 2016.)

· Russia to launch Intergelio-Zond astrophysics satellite. (As of 2009. In 2008-2009, the launch was expected in 2014. (299, 388) Original plans targeted the 2011 launch date.)



· ESA's ExoMars rover and NASA's MAX-C rover to land on the surface of Mars.

End of September

· NASA's SLS rocket to launch an Orion spacecraft on a manned mission around the Moon (As of September 2011.)


· Japan's Hayabusa-2 spacecraft depart to Earth from a 1999 JU3 asteroid with its soil samples.


· NASA and ESA to launch a precursor communications orbiter for the upcoming Mars soil sample return mission. (A proposal to be submitted to the EU Ministerial Council in November2008).

End of December

Japan to launch a spacecraft toward Jupiter, possibly propelled by a solar sail. (As of 2009)

· Russia to launch a series of unmanned probes into the orbit of Mars in preparation for manned expeditions.

· Europe to launch a Euclid telescope with the mission to map the distribution of galaxies. (As of October 2011, pending final approval.)



· NASA's Deep Impact probe to encounter a half-mile asteroid 2002 GT, which regularly crosses path with Earth. (As of December2011


· NASA's Atlas-5 rocket to launch the Europa orbiter, JEO, toward Jupiter. (As of February 2009)


· Europe's Ariane-5 ECA rocket to launch a Ganymede orbiter, JGO, toward Jupiter. (As of February 2009. Under consideration by ESA from March 2005 with a projected launch in 2016, In 2007-2008, Russia and Europe discussed a similar mission, known as Sokol-Laplas (Sokol-Laplace)).


·NASA's Solar Probe Plus to conduct a flyby of Venus.

· A European BepiColombo probe to enter orbit around Mercury for a one- or two-year mission (As of August 2009. The arrival delayed from August 2019. Listed date was contiginet on the 2014 launch, which was delayed to 2015 in February 2012).

· The latest date for NASA to resume manned exploration of the Moon. (Set on January. 14, 2004, cancelled on February. 1, 2010)

· NASA to launch a formation-flying infrared interferometer to search for planets around other stars. (Delayed by the 2006 budget cut)

·NASA's probe heading toward Neptune to flyby Jupiter. (A 2005 proposal within NASA Vision Mission)

· China to launch a 20-ton manned space station into the Earth orbit with the Long March 5 rocket. (An unofficial November. 2007 statement quoted by China Daily newspaper, by Long Lehao, one of the leading designers of the Long March 3A rocket. The date was officially denied)

· The European Space Agency to launch the Tandem mission to Saturn, Titan and Enceladus, and possibly delivering a balloon into the atmosphere of Titan. (Later became known as Titan and Saturn System Mission, TSSM). It competes with the Laplace mission, targeting Jupiter and Europa. (A 2007 proposal within Cosmic Vision study; the selection was originally expected in the Fall of 2008, but was delayed to the beginning of 2009. The launch date was delayed from 2018.)

· Europe to conduct its first manned mission in the Earth orbit. (A provisional date based on the projected funding in November2008)

· NASA, ESA to launch a network of landers to be deployed on the surface of Mars within the NET mission. (As of July 2009)

· Japan's Hayabusa-2 spacecraft to return to Earth with samples of a carbon reach asteroid. (As of an August 2010 budget proposal, approved in January 2012.)